Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Grammatical prescriptivism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Grammatical prescriptivism - Essay Example The article began with the statement that â€Å"The New York Times can be quite accessible for English language learners.† The article then illustrated that there are ten tips that can be followed to help utilize the publication as a learning tool. The main argument to the paper is the fact that the New York Times is an excellent source for English as second language students. The first major tip in the article was that the New York Times (NYT) has a â€Å"Look Up† function on the website for the reader to access the definition of any word. The second tip illustrates that articles and prepositions are easily put into context, insofar as one can ‘scratch out’ the articles and prepositions from NYT Articles as a test to determine understanding. At this point it is important to highlight that the article also recommends several related articles that further reinforce the arguments made by Ojalvo. The third strategy highlights that a learner can start from a ve ry small article and work up towards more difficult pieces. The fourth tip stresses the point that the NYT has an extensive photo database with captions that describe the action taking place in the picture. This can be a useful tool in relating vocabulary to actions/images.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

How is Romeos growing love for Juliet shown in Romeo and Juliet Essay Example for Free

How is Romeos growing love for Juliet shown in Romeo and Juliet Essay There are many stages of love shown by Romeo in this play. At first he seems in pain but as the play goes on, he gradually realises his true love and starts to get happier. As I show in this essay Romeo adores Juliet and likens her to many things. Juliet returns this love as well, showing how happy they are in each other. In Act 1 Scene 1, Romeo is featured throughout, in his â€Å"pain of love.† Shakespeare describes many symptoms of how he is affected. It is shown as being painful and affecting him badly. On line 149 Montague – Romeo’s father – says that Romeo is â€Å"the bud bit by the envious worm† as if to say he has a bug inside him, slowing down his will do normal things by chewing away at his soul represented by a bud of a flower. At this point (Line 149), Montague and Benvolio (Romeo’s cousin) are still unsure as to what is causing his sadness by saying â€Å"We would as willingly give cure as know† (Line 154), meaning that they want to get him out of his sadness as well as know what is causing it. This is a statement backing-up what he earlier said on Line 136, when Montague says â€Å"And private in his chamber pens himself† – He stays in his bedroom and locks the door. This makes Romeo feel wretched. By locking himself in his room doesn’t help either, as this makes him feel worse. Another significant feature is the frequent references to life and death. For instance Romeo says, on line 200, â€Å"A sick man makes his will† to the end of line 202, being ill is mentioned at least twice. He says a â€Å"sick man,† which shows he is, in a sense, that he is not himself because he loves someone. Another point is that he says on line 187 â€Å"Doth add more grief.† The key word is grief, which is usually used with sorrow feelings and death. Something that appears briefly in one speech is the use of some oxymorons. They can be found in Romeo’s lines 173 – 180. A good example is â€Å"O heavy lightness.† This, if used in real context would not make sense as it a contradictory statement. This shows Romeo’s confusing as he is finding it hard that he cannot get the woman he wants and is frustrated with himself. There are further uses of oxymorons later in the play. In Act 3, Scene 2 around lines 75, there are several oxymorons, examples are â€Å"beautiful tyrant† (Line 75) and â€Å"dove-feathered raven† (Line 76). These are good examples as they show complete opposites and demonstrate what Juliet was feeling as she is torn between feeling for Romeo whilst feeling angry at him because of Tybalt. This shows some of the feelings people have to go through when experiencing love as they have to have important feelings. Images of problems of love are also picked up on. In Romeo’s speech around line 190, he says â€Å"Love is a smoke made with the fume of sighs.† This is saying that love is something that will poison you as it ends up with sighs. Shakespeare is making Romeo get out of his state of love and into his normal self. Romeo even says â€Å"I have lost myself.† He knows this isn’t like him and needs to snap out of it but Shakespeare cleverly gets Benvolio involved, so Romeo is forced to tell more, making it even harder for Romeo breakout of his frame of mind. Lastly Romeo and Benvolio mention love and blindness (and the eye) together. In Act 1 Scene 2, Benvolio says â€Å"Take thou some new infection to the eye.† This is saying that Benvolio wants Romeo to look at other women to stop him thinking about the one, who has been keeping him secluded. This line could also mean that Benvolio thinks Romeo has been blind in terms of looking at other women and that â€Å"a new infection† i.e. an infection means an illness that stops you from seeing, so love is a illness for Romeo. From here could be a turning point in two ways for Romeo. He could start being himself again or looking at other women could make him feel worse as he was in Act 1, Scene 1. Romeo would not want this because he may find it harder to get out of his miserable state a second time round. Also the audience may get impatient as they want to see Romeo progress, not rewind into his former conditions. We now start to see Romeo open up as he sees Juliet. This is now the beginning of him becoming happier. This is also the first time the audience see Juliet, in the eyes of Romeo, so is a crucial part of the play. When Romeo firsts sees Juliet, he is truly amazed, and this is shown clearly. In Act 1, Scene 5, Romeo likens her to a â€Å"rich jewel in an Ethiop’s ear† (Line 46). This is effective because it gives the audience an image of jewel, which is prominent in the first place, but to be an Ethiopian’s ear, makes it seem all the brighter. This shows that Juliet is already precious, and stood out to him immediately. Another idea to back this up is the use of the word â€Å"torches† shortly afterwards. This could also be interpreted as standing out from the other people. I think could also mean that she is his light. This shows contrast from earlier when it was dark to him. Religion is also used as a theme. On line 94, Romeo says â€Å"This holy shrine,† which could show that Romeo sees her now as his religion, or his light, as I said in the previous paragraph. He almost worships her and, the effect given is they are now lifting their love to sacred or purer ground, not just all the bits that people usually associate with love. It is still in the balance though as Juliet hasn’t spoken a word to Romeo yet, everything he has said proves how strong his love is. Another religious idea is â€Å"blushing pilgrims† used by Romeo on line 95. Pilgrims is used because it shows he is ready to make the journey of love with Juliet. The impression is that Romeo is waiting and that he wants to find the true meaning of his â€Å"religion.† Shakespeare uses pilgrims cleverly as he makes Romeo more romantic than if he put how Romeo felt bluntly. It makes the audience feel that he deserves Juliet. Romeo is skilful in the way he gets to kiss Juliet. As I said before he is not blunt. Instead he uses â€Å"saints† as his way of wooing Juliet. He is shown to the audience that he is a smooth charmer. He also talks of â€Å"sins,† this leads to him challenging Juliet and sort of be against what she should do. This is even more temptation and that is another way of how Romeo managed to get his kiss. Juliet responds by kissing him back, showing the audience that Romeo has been very clever indeed. She says â€Å"You kiss by the book.† This now shows that Juliet has given in and this is where their story starts and the part of the play speeds up a little. This is proven when Juliet finds out she is in love with a Montague, making it doubly interesting for the audience, so they start to get captivated. For Romeo, this is a complete contrast to how he was earlier in the Act. Earlier in the scene on line 53 he said â€Å"I ne’er saw true beauty till this night,† shows that he finally realised he was never in love, just desperate. From now we realise the full extent of Romeo’s love for Juliet. They both almost worship other and we see how much in Act 2. It is almost like they cannot be separated. In Act 2, Scene2, the audience knows for sure that Romeo’s love is now true, unlike in Act 1 and is happy. Romeo compares to Juliet and being bright throughout page 89. The most obvious example is on line 3 – â€Å"Juliet is the Sun.† This shows that he depends on her just as the Earth depends on the Sun. It gives the effect that he cannot live without her. This is backed from line 15 to line 20. A good example is on line 18 where Romeo says â€Å"The brightness of her cheek would shame those stars.† This shows his true affection for her as she shines out to him more than stars, or she shines out to him more than any other woman. Juliet responds to Romeo in the same sort of pattern, which is brightness. Words such as â€Å"bright angel† and heaven are used. I think Shakespeare did this to make sure the audience realised that things have definitely improved for Romeo and that he is now truly in love. Moving away from brightness, Juliet refers to him as â€Å"dear perfection,† this shows the feelings between them are shared. There are strong images used later on the Act. From line 80 to line 84, is a very strong image shown by Romeo. This means that Romeo would travel on a very risky journey to find her. This is again an example of how strong his love has grown for her. Throughout the Act there is a strong presence that Shakespeare is trying to show the contrast of Romeo in Act 1 and Act 2. In Act 1, we hear of Romeo moping saying he is in love, but in Act 2 we now hear he is in love but is lighter and more active than before. I think this is because in Act 1 Romeo could have thought he was in love but was not, so maybe his instinctive reaction was to sulk. Again these lines show a significant contrast to earlier when there were feelings of darkness. Romeo and Juliet are well and truly glued to each other by now. The love they have shown towards each other and is overwhelming. To them they will feel that nothing will tear them apart despite being Capulet and Montague. Their love will rise to unimaginable heights but the audience can tell that Shakespeare will add a cruel twist where something will happen to bring them apart.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

California Youth Authority :: essays research papers

The California Youth Authority or the CYA as it is more commonly known, is an institution which provides a range of education, treatment, and training services for youthful offenders committed by courts. This system has been plagued by multitudes of problems for many years that need to be fixed. â€Å"The California Youth Authority is responsible for the protection of society form the criminal and delinquent behavior of young people(Hill, Legislative Analyst).† This is reached mainly through custodial control of these juveniles and the implementation of vocational, education, health, and mental health treatment services. As of now, CYA uses large, remote, high-security facilities. They may be called "schools," but with about 400 kids in each one, they are more like warehouses, storing wards until they are ready for release. For decades, experts and officials have dismissed this model as incapable of meeting the juvenile justice system’s goal of rehabilitating youth. The CYA is clearly not working the way the way that it was designed to run. For instance, three out of four wards who end up in the California Youth Authority are arrested on new criminal charges within three years of their release, which proves the institution's failure to rehabilitate the state's most troubled juvenile offenders. Experts say the high number does not address how much California could gain from approaches used in other states (like Mississippi) such as housing wards in smaller facilities, providing intensive treatment programs, and offering more supervision and assistance after a ward is released. â€Å"In smaller, rehabilitation centers, youth would be under the supervision of trained social workers and mental health experts – not prison guards.(LAO Report, pg. 7).† This would allow the offenders to be in closer contact with their families, as well as a variety of services. The average age of a CYA institution is 43 years old. This means the there are many maintenance and repair needs and, at some point, many buildings will have to be replaced. Also, the population that many of the institutions were designed for 40 or 50 years ago is different than today’s youthful offender. â€Å"Finally, the ward population has decreased from a high of over 10,000 in 1996 to its current level of 4,300. This decline has resulted in overcapacity and presents an opportunity to consider closure(Lao Report, pg. 11).† Closing some institutions would save the state money, and enable the state to implement programs to lower recidivism rates.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Uncle Tom’s Cabin American History

1. Slavery in the nineteenth century was different than slavery during the colonial times because nineteenth century slaves were exactly that – slaves. In colonial times, black slaves were actually treated more like indentured servants. Census records from 1651 indicate that Africans who completed their indentured servitude were set free as well as given their own land (McElrath, 2009). However, the practice of allowing indentured black slaves to be free increased the need for laborers and many landowners began requiring black people to become servants for life. This was unsuccessful and white landowners began to consider slavery as an option (McElrath, 2009). This differed from other countries and their practice of slavery because America began to implement complex and demanding slave codes that dictated exactly how slaves were to live and exactly what was required of them. For example, in 1661, Virginia devised a statute that required that newly born children would have the same status as their mother. As a result, the slave population continued to increase as female slaves gave birth to children (McElrath, 2009). Further, as time passed, America began to recognize slavery as a law, which also differed from other countries who relied on slavery. These laws required that all black people, even those that were already free, and their children would be considered slaves (McElrath, 2009). Therefore, Harry, the young son of Eliza was considered a slave because his mother was a slave (Stowe, Chapter 1, 2004). Finally, the nineteenth century practice of indentured servitude no longer applied to black people. Slavery is similar to indentured servitude but when black people are slaves they have no hope for freedom as they did during the colonial times. When a black person became a slave, he became a slave for life whereas a black indentured servant could look forward to a future of freedom. 2. According to Marie St. Clare, slavery is an essential aspect of life. Marie is a selfish and self centered woman who only cares about herself. She is constantly dreaming up afflictions in order to gain attention. At the same time, she views slaves with disgust and impatience (Stowe, Chapter 15, 2004). This may also be considered an argument against slavery as well. If Marie is so dissatisfied with her slaves then what is the point of having them in the first place? Marie’s husband, Augustine St. Clare denounces slavery and admits that it is evil. Augustine treats his slaves with compassion but also accepts slavery and continues to have slaves in his household (Stowe, Chapter 14, 2004). Although Augustine makes use of slaves in his own home, he does feel that slavery is morally wrong. This is in direct contrast to his brother Alfred, who strongly believes that the white race is the dominant race. A good example of this conflict comes in chapter nineteen when Prue, a slave from down the street, visits the St. Clare home selling rolls and tells Uncle Tom the sad story about the selling of her children as well as the death of one of them. Very shortly after, word comes that Prue’s master had whipped her to death. Augustine quite obviously disagrees with this act but admits that while he does not agree he is not going to do anything to make such events stop. He states that he is simply going to stay out of the way (Stowe, Chapter 19, 2004). Another example, tells of Augustine and his twin brother inheriting their father’s plantation and all the slaves. While Alfred embraced the notion of slavery and believed that dominating slaves was the rightful job a white man, Augustine had more compassion and â€Å"tamed† one specific slave and then gave him his freedom (Stowe, Chapter 19, 2004). Ultimately, the St. Clare family differed in their views on slavery but the fact remained that all three of these people relied on slavery every day. Marie was indifferent and Alfred wholeheartedly accepted slavery. However, Augustine felt that the danger of slavery would continue to be the difference in moral lines that human beings would draw with regards to what freedom meant and who it was meant for (Stowe, Chapter 19, 2004). 3. The paternalistic view towards slaves that many defenders of slavery internalized allowed them a sort of denial because deep down many of knew that enslaving human beings was morally wrong (Harper, 2003). Many Northern slave owners adopted their slaves and treated them like members of the family (Harper, 2003). However, kindness and compassion for slaves is never enough security for the slaves themselves. Uncle Tom had the good fortune to be sold to Augustine St. Clare and was treated respectably in his household (Stowe, Chapter 14, 2004). No amount of kindness could save Uncle Tom from the harsh reality of slavery after Augustine’s death. He is sold to Simon Legree, who is a cruel slave owner and treats his slaves in the worst possible ways (Stowe, Chapter 30, 2004). The Shelby’s own many slaves and they treat them kindly. However, Mr. Shelby, no matter how kind he is, has to sell some slaves and resolve some debt. In the end his kindness did not protect Uncle Tom from being sold (Stowe, Chapter 1, 2004). Similarly, the St. Clare family is mostly compassionate towards their slaves until Eva and Augustine die. Simon Legree becomes Uncle Tom’s next slave owner, and he is a harsh and cruel man, illustrating once again that the kindness of Augustine did not protect Uncle Tom from the cruelty of Simon Legree (Stowe, Chapter 30, 2004). Mr. Haley is largely indifferent to the slaves and sells and buys them when it will benefit him monetarily. His actions are not directly cruel but they do not ultimately protect the slaves either (Stowe, Chapter 1, 2004). Finally, George Harris tolerated slavery although his disbelief in Christianity prevented him from denouncing the moral problems associated with slavery. 4. The existence of a slave was a hard one. Many slaves ran away because they were tortured or beaten. Others ran away because the constant buying and selling of slaves tore apart families and many slaves escaped in an effort to reunite with their loved ones. Slaves were not allowed to get an education and were only provided the bare essentials for survival (Hayden, 2008). George Harris and his wife, Eliza are both slaves. George had the good fortune to work in a factory where he invented a machine that would clean hemp more efficiently. However, the owner of the factory believed he had invented the machine because he was lazy and removed him from the factory. As a result, George saw very little of his family. After some time passes, George decides to escape because he can no longer tolerate his existence as a slave. Further, George was being pressured by his master to take a new wife. George informs Eliza that he plans to escape to Canada and will try to secure her and Harry’s freedom once he gets there (Stowe, Chapter 1, 2004). George escaped slavery for the same reason that many other slaves escaped – he was tired of being treated so badly. Eliza also escapes when she learns that her young son, Harry had been sold. She had already suffered the loss of two children and did not want to lose her only remaining child. Eliza visited Uncle Tom’s cabin and he encouraged her to escape before being sold. Eliza tells them of her intention to follow after George and slips away before she can change her mind (Stowe, Chapter 1, 2004). While Eliza did not suffer direct abuse at the hands of the Shelby’s she did feel a compelling need to escape in order to protect her only remaining child. She obviously did not want to be separated from him, but she also did not want a wicked slave owner to get his hands on her son either. She felt her only option was to run. Ultimately, this husband and wife are both able to escape, but for very different reasons. George is tired of being treated badly and Eliza fears for the safety of her son. These two illustrations show the human nature of slaves and show their strong desires to be treated equally, remain close to their loved ones and protect their children. 5. The primary reason why slaves did not attempt to escape even when they outnumbered the white people is because they were afraid of being caught and returned to their rightful owners subject to even harsher treatment than before as punishment for trying to get away. This was the main obstacle slaves faced. If they were successful at escaping they really did not have any place to go because they lived in fear of being returned to their masters if caught. The main difference with the Federal 1850 Fugitive Slave Act was that it was ultimately created to keep the nation united. It was so controversial because it fueled the flames of the anti slavery versus slavery debated that continue to rage across the country. This Federal act allowed for a compromise. Texas gave up land in return for ten million dollars while the new states would not mention slavery and the issue would be left up to the individual states. Further, the act required that citizens participate in returning escaped slaves. Therefore, people helping slaves to freedom could face trial if they were caught aiding and abetting escaped slaves (PBS. org, 2009). Other things impeded slave action as well. For example, the slaves who belonged to Augustine St. Clare opposed action because they may have felt that life would not get any better than it already was. The slaves were treated with compassion and generally treated well when compared to other slave owners. At the same time, slaves belonging to Simon Legree may have been afraid to revolt because they feared for their lives if they were caught and returned to such a wicked slave owner. However, the interests of all slaves remained the notion of freedom but this freedom was not acted upon for fear of not finding anything better or fear of being caught and returned to an even worse life of slavery. Finally, many slaves may have felt that they were receiving everything they needed and allowed themselves to be dominated by the white people simply because they were afraid that nothing better would come along. They allowed the racial divides to continue because they were certain that black people would never be equal to white people and therefore, escape was futile (Stowe, 2004). 6. Slave rebellions were an extreme form of resistance by slaves against their white masters. Since the Haitian uprising in 1792, white landowners lived in fear of their African American slaves (Hooker, 1996). This slave rebellion proved that African Americans did not accept their status as slaves and there came a breaking point when they just needed to assert their independence and fight for their freedom. The Haitian slaves began an uprising that would leave thousands of people dead. Denmark Vesey was able to purchase his freedom but he was still very angry about the slave situation. Quoting scripture, Vesey motivated slaves to revolt and the result was countless white deaths. The slaves would post themselves at the doors of white landowners and start fires. When the whites came to the door they would be killed and then everyone else in the home would be killed also. Similar to the Haitian revolt, this revolt struck fear in the hearts of white slave owners. Nat Turner succeeded far more with his revolt. He and a slave named Will began the revolt by killing Will’s masters and then methodically killing all white slave owners they could and taking their slaves as part of their cause. Turner went into hiding and during this time the white slave owners were extremely afraid of his return (Hooker, 1996). The Underground Railroad was another form of slave resistance although it was a much more peaceful one. The Underground Railroad was made up of mostly black people, most famously Harriet Tubman, and some white people who helped fugitive slaves escape to freedom. This organization enabled many black slaves to find their freedom (PBS. org, 2009). However, many black slaves quietly resisted their white masters without escaping or revolting. For example, after Uncle Tom is bought by Simon Legree he befriends another slave by the name of Cassy. One afternoon he and Casey help each other in the fields and when Legree finds out he orders Uncle Tom to whip her. Uncle Tom refuses, which is a form of resistance, and he is beaten almost to death. However, he shows further resistance by accepting the beating in order to prevent the injury of a fellow slave (Stowe, Chapter 33, 2004). 7. Abolitionists such as Harriet Stowe called for an immediate end to slavery. In contrast the Anti-Slavery Movement of the 1800s was more of a gradual resistance to the continued use of slavery in the United States. Abolitionists wanted the entire slave trade to come to an end while the Anti-Slavery Movement was more concerned with stopping the spread of slavery into the colonies of the United States. Many abolitionists were Christian people who felt that slavery was against moral rules. However, abolitionism ended up being a gradual process as it took a great deal of time, energy and people to effectively gather the strength necessary to truly make changes that moved towards the freedom of black people. The Anti-Slavery Movement was able to make immediate changes with such passages of law as the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (Vernon-Jones, 2009). The Missouri Compromise determined which states would allow slavery and which states would not allow slavery. The compromise allowed the balance of power in Congress to be equal among slave and anti slave states (Vernon-Jones, 2009). Therefore, the Anti-Slavery Movement was able to immediately make some states free states and some states slave states. So while the Anti-Slavery Movement did not abolish slavery all at once as the abolitionists were trying to do, it did have more success making immediate and lasting changes than the abolitionists were able to do. Further, the primary way that abolitionists were able to gain support was through persuasion. Human persuasion is an extremely difficult task that takes a great deal of time. The Anti-Slavery Movement was more dependent upon actual laws and policy changes which made it more successful in the short term. However, neither movement was without violence as was evident in the Anti-Slavery activities at Harpers Ferry led by a famous anti slavery advocate, John Brown (Vernon-Jones, 2009). 8. All Northern whites were not committed to ending slavery. Many of them felt, as Augustine St. Clare felt, that slavery was wrong but they were not going to do anything about ending it because it certainly benefited their way of life. The senators included in the story held this opinion. For example, Senator Bird votes in favor of the Compromise of 1850 under the guise that slavery does not have anything to do with personal feelings but is more a matter of what the entire country wants instead. In other words, he defended his actions by agreeing that slavery was wrong but also realizing the importance that slavery had come to have in America. An example of this attitude is when Eliza and Harry come to his home looking for help and he helps them escape (Stowe, Chapter 37, 2004). Ophelia holds similar opinions. She does not agree with the idea of slavery while also believing that black slaves were inferior to white people. For example, she does not want Topsy, a slave friend of Eva’s, to touch her (Stowe, Chapter 25, 2004). However, after Eva’s death, Ophelia begins to realize that if a child could have such love towards the slaves, then she could to. She petitions to have Topsy given to her so she can reform her and then take her North and set her free. She finally begins to realize why she believes slavery is immoral through her relationship with a human slave (Stowe, Chapter 28. 004). While many people from the Northern states held similar opinions that slavery was bad many also disassociated themselves with the whole issue. Free black people and former slaves were not treated as cruelly as they were as slaves but they still did not gain equal status either. They were treated as human beings, but as inferior human beings. 9. The Christian churches and Northern economic inte rests helped contribute to the continuation of slavery because they also saw the economic value of slavery. The plantation owners in the North realized the benefit of slavery just as the Southern plantation owners did, even if they did not agree with the idea of slavery. This passive attitude allowed slavery to exist in America far longer than it should have. In this way, the North was every bit as responsible for the continuation of slavery as the South was. Many Northerners were unwilling to take a stand to help abolish slavery because it would hurt them economically, socially and in matters of convenience. This attitude helped contribute to what Stowe felt as the worst part of slavery – the separation of families. The book discusses the separation of parents and children often over the course of the story. Stowe repeatedly discusses the fear that parents will become separated from their children (Stowe, 2004). Further, Stowe felt that slavery as a whole corrupted everyone’s ideas because it allowed white people to view black people as inferior to themselves. Even non slave owners did not entirely embrace the idea that white people and black people were equal. The fundamental principle of slavery is an important component of American history and it was hard to let go of even when slaves earned their freedom. Stowe staunchly advocated for the abolishment of slavery but also for the equal treatment of black people. She believed that black people had equal rights to justice and freedom as those enjoyed by white people. She firmly believed in a society where colonization would be a reality even though equality was a long way off. However, when the white people agreed to colonize with the black people they would be taking one step towards helping justify the hurts caused by slavery (Stowe, Chapter 45, 2004). References Harper, Douglas. (2003). Slavery in the North. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://www.slavenorth.com/index.html. Hayden, Scott. (2008). The underground railroad. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://americanhistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_underground_railway. Hooker, Richard. (1996). Slave rebellions. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/DIASPORA/REBEL.HTM. McElrath, Jessica. (2009). Slavery in Colonial Times. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/colonialslavery_2.htm. PBS.org. (2009). The compromise of 1850 and fugitive slave act. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html. PBS.org. (2009). The underground railroad. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2944.html. Stowe, Harriet Beecher. (2004). Uncle Tom’s Cabin. New York: Barnes and Noble. Vernon-Jones, Russ. (2009). John Brown. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://www.arps.org/aro/john_brown.htm.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Key Problems and Issues Facing Hong Kong

Contemporary Tourism Issues Topic: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TOURISM – KEY PROBLEMS AND ISSUES FACING HONG KONG Introduction Unquestionably, Hong Kong is a blessed land where possesses prosperity and most of the elements of being a world class cosmopolitan which has successfully attracted visitors over years, especially from the mainland by emphasising our world-class shopping, dining and other urban attractions (Lam, H. , 2004).Despite the flourishing scene of the tourism industry, the volatile tourist markets and growing competition from Southeast Asian countries and neighbouring destinations have posed new challenges to Hong Kong’s tourism industry. In order to strengthen Hong Kong’s position as a preferable Asian tourist destination, in recent years, Hong Kong government has started paying more attentions to sustainable tourism due to the rising environmental consciousness worldwide and tourists’ growing interests in the new forms of tourism, namely Eco-tour ism and Cultural Tourism.Projects and campaigns, such as the development of Hong Kong Wetland Park, the launch of â€Å"Cultural Kaleidoscope† and â€Å"Nature Kaleidoscope† experience programmes, and publishing tour guidebooks- â€Å"Discover Hong Kong Nature† and â€Å"Discover Hong Kong by Rail† were introduced to promote green tourism and cultural tourism (GovHK, 2009). These promotion schemes have been launched with the aim to sustain the tourism industry by diversifying the tourism products to cater to the changing and diverse needs of inbound tourist market.Despite the development is on track of continued growth which has aroused tourists’ interests to look at â€Å"the other sides† of Hong Kong, many issues are needed to take into consideration due to the complex nature of sustainable tourism and the large number of stakeholders involved in. There is criticism from public that throughout these schemes, little attention has been paid to develop the tourism as a whole and a truly sustainable one since the schemes are still carried out in a loose manner without a thorough policy. The most significant issues are environmental ustainability and cultural sustainability due to the most recent focus of government on these issues and their importance to the sustainable development. Environmental Sustainability Country parks and nature reserves make up 40 percent of Hong Kong's total land area of some 1,100 square kilometres (Ling, 2007). Regarding the relative ample resources and the initial success of Wetland Parks, Hong Kong government recognized the green potential in Hong Kong tourism and has aggressively proposed numbers of Green initiatives recently, such as the Lantau North Country Park and Marine Park, Geoparks as well as cycle tracks and mountain bike trails.However, regarding these proposed projects, inadequate concerns have been given to the carrying capacity of these natural resources as well as the cost of construction. It is found that the conservational practices are not carried out in a strict manner as a case in Kam Tin Wetland and Hoi Ha Wan marine reserve, which are two well-known ecological attractions in Hong Kong, were reported in suffering wastage problems (Cheung, 2006).Another typical example is a member of Advisory Council on the Environment opposed to the proposal of Lantau North Country Park concerning the development of transport linkage of Tung Chung Road would damage the ecology of the areas. It aroused conservationists’ concern that government’s overemphasis on bringing in the tourist dollars will keep tourist agencies and residents focused on generating large-scale projects but putting little concern on making low-impact sustainable tourism (Crets, 2006).From the projects being carried out or proposed, it shows government’s interests on large scale investment but not much effort and support given to the details, such as the carrying capacity of the ecological resources. It implies government emphasized on the profit making and lacked of a whole-heartedly attitudes towards sustainable tourism. There is no doubt that green tourism has a large potential to become one of the major tourism sectors in Hong Kong with its educational and sustainable meaning as well as the economic benefits resulted from the rising awareness of this market.However, sustainability should not put mainly on the economic side since sustainability of tourist attractions, i. e. , the ecological sites and the heritage, is the core value of sustainable tourism. Although the government claimed that it has been keen on â€Å"promoting green tourism in Northeast New Territories and outlying islands having regard to the principles of nature conservation and sustainable development. (GovHK, 2009), it is doubtful that, regarding its policy on green tourism, whether Hong Kong government has a clear and accurate vision for mass tourism that will incorporate the natural environment. Tourism should be regarded as a tool for ecological and heritage preservation but not the other way round, otherwise there is no true meaning of sustainable tourism. Apparently, there is still much room for improvement regarding the policy as more concern and control should be placed over the environmental sustainability so as not to override the economic sustainability on the environmental sustainability.The success of green tourism is largely dependent on effectiveness of government on planning and management to minimize the impact to environment and the effective distribution of ecological resources. One of the measures suggested to the government is to have strict control on the environmental conservations instead of focusing on constructing more attractions and promoting the markets. The carrying capacity of the green attractions should be carefully studied and controlled by imposing strict regulations on the visitor numbers and their behaviours.Besides, du e to the rising demand, eco-guides’ demand is stretching, thus setting legal standards for eco-guides as well as providing training for nurturing the expertise are in urgent needs to cope with the stretched demand as well as to educate the appropriate behaviours in the ecologist attractions (Chong, 2007). Cultural Sustainability Due to the diversification in Hong Kong’s culture which is positioned as East-meet-West, Hong Kong has been recently facing the demands of constructing an identity reflected in choices about what heritage to conserve and how to present it (Henderson, 2002).With the current trend of globalization and mass movement of people, issues of cultural identity and cultural preservation continue to be explored. Recently, Hong Kong has been keen on developing attractions to enhance Hong Kong’s cultural image, one of the fine examples is the proposed cultural venues, the West Kowloon Cultural District. Besides building new cultural venues, preservin g and promoting Hong Kong’s tangible and intangible heritage are accounted as other measures to showcase Hong Kong’s mixed culture.Examples like preservation and development of the former Marine Police Headquarters in Tsim Sha Tsui into a tourism facility by the private sector, â€Å"1881 Heritage†, and HKTB’s promotion of traditional Chinese customs and festivals such as the Tin Hau Festival parade in Yuen Long and Cha Kwo Ling, Tam Kung Festival in Shaukeiwan, the Cheung Chau Bun Festival and the Birthday of Lord Buddha celebrations at Po Lin Monastery. Despite these efforts, several problems are found regarding Hong Kong’s culture and heritage sustainability policy.It is found that Hong Kong has been relatively slow in developing its potential heritage sites into tourist attractions, as seen in the controversy over the fate of Tiger Balm Garden and the Central Police Station. According to Chu and Uebegang (2002), the sluggish and passive respons e of government reflects the lack of political will due to a lack of understanding of the principles of heritage and its potential. The Government believes heritage conservation should be driven by tourism and economics and not treated in the same way as other social and education services.Even with the setting up of Heritage Tourism Task Force which is established in 1998, there have been very few recommendations proposed by the task force. Some critics have blamed on its lack of leadership and lack of influence in the government bureaucracy (Chu and Uebegang, 2002). Other problems implied in the policy of government are lack of a broad-based, long-term conservation policy, lack of a clear priorities and inadequate co-ordination of government departments involved in present heritage conservation practice.Besides, in most cultural heritage development, public involvement in decision-making is absent. Regarding these problem, it is essential for government to change its attitude and strike for a more holistic vision and policy towards the cultural heritage conservation. It is due to the challenge faced by Hong Kong that it has long promoted its culture as an exciting fusion of East-meet-West and traditional-meet-contemporary, which may cause it falling in a danger of overemphasizing on international style attractions and a loss of actual distinctiveness.Development may follow a common path to create uniform of tourism features which convey similar image to the tourists. Therefore, the cultural and heritage conservations are essential in the tourism development as it helps to maintain a unique sense of place and difference as intrinsic merit to secure its competitive advantages and reposition the image besides an international metropolitan with the colonial history. Apart from these problems of fragmented policy and vision, the management issue of the cultural heritage has been another concern by the conservationist and researchers.Since the cultural and heritag e tourism requires a cautious approach with sensitivity, research, and community involvement due to its core value is to convey the value to and engage present generations without betraying the spirit of the previous generations’ experiences. It is important and beneficial to involve the participation of those people and groups who are most closely related to the significance of the heritage area. Without this, it is difficult to achieve substantive conservation. In Hong Kong, there is lack of cooperation with and involvement of the locals or the significant cultural group.It is, therefore, suggested to involve the local community at the planning and operation level which can enhance the sustainability of the projects as well as prevent the problem of being too commercialized which affecting the authenticity and integrity of the heritage. Referring to the need of involvement of local community, certain level of empowerment is essential which can be regarded as community based tourism. It broadly described as â€Å"responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people. It requires tourism activities to be primarily developed and operated by members of the local community and that revenues from tourism remain within the local community. Respect for local culture, heritage and traditions is imperative. CBT teaches the visitor to behave responsibly and respectfully towards nature and native culture, and offers activities that give the visitor an understanding and appreciation of the area without degrading it. Most importantly of all, it can reserve the sustainable resources and reduce the impacts to the community daily life at the minimum level.Conclusion Tourism is most ideally suited to adopt sustainability as a guiding philosophy in sustainable developmemnt (McKercher, 2003). However, mismanaging sustainable tourism will turn it into a curse as it will damage the ecological and heritage attraction s in more direct ways. According to McKercher (2003), sustainable tourism is built around four pillars of tourism, namely economic sustainability, ecological sustainability, cultural sustainability and local sustainability, all these four elements must be addressed if we are to achieve sustainable tourism.It is found that recently Hong Kong government is striking for sustainable tourism, however, there is a lack of broad view and holistic policy to support the efforts. Unregulated short-term initiatives which serve the narrow interests of powerful forces in the industry may jeopardize the sustainability and longer-term tourism potential of many communities upon which majority interests are based (Brohman, 1996). It is therefore important for government to be aware of the future planning must be holistic, strategic and long-term.Laws, procedures and systems for planning, preservation, development and management should be adjusted or created to ensure that the development of the proje ct is undertaken in ways that are consistent with the principles of sustainability. Besides, all these should be applied to a culture of caring for the environment, therefore the concepts of preservation and sustainable development should be fostered and encouraged within the government and the community so as to ensure the true and holistic meaning of sustainable tourism.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Free Essays on Oneida Community

The radical notion that one could be without sin – be perfect – did not originate with John Humphrey Noyes, the leader of the Oneida Community and the perfectionist movement, however, his brand of perfectionism was genuinely new. He claimed that in 70 AD Christ had returned to earth, therefore liberation from sin was an accomplished fact. He proclaimed that he was, in fact, with out sin and that by following him others could lead a perfect, Sinless life. This concept was the basis for the formation of the Oneida Community. The perfectionists felt they could best learn selflessness in an environment where they shared everything. This environment was the biblical commune at the Oneida Community Mansion House. John Humphrey Noyes’ goal was not to change the world but to â€Å"construct a social and economic system that would provide an alternative structure within which the self-actualization of the members, through perfectionism, could occur.† When it came to decision making for the group, Noyes gave the impression of operating through discussion and persuasion rather then proclamation, however, in the end Noyes made all final decisions. To act as a democratic type society there was a sort of hierarchy established concerning everyday operational decisions as well as economic policy and other more important matters. Committees discussed the everyday operational decisions. There were twenty-one standing committees with forty-eight different compartments. Committees were held for everything from heating and clothing to dentistry and incidentals. The committees would discuss these things endlessly and they were always making changes. They felt that change was important to keep the devil from finding you. They were so concerned with this that they even changed rooms often. One of the prerequisites for joining the community was holding the belief that John Humphrey Noyes was God’s representative on earth. God inspired him through a... Free Essays on Oneida Community Free Essays on Oneida Community The radical notion that one could be without sin – be perfect – did not originate with John Humphrey Noyes, the leader of the Oneida Community and the perfectionist movement, however, his brand of perfectionism was genuinely new. He claimed that in 70 AD Christ had returned to earth, therefore liberation from sin was an accomplished fact. He proclaimed that he was, in fact, with out sin and that by following him others could lead a perfect, Sinless life. This concept was the basis for the formation of the Oneida Community. The perfectionists felt they could best learn selflessness in an environment where they shared everything. This environment was the biblical commune at the Oneida Community Mansion House. John Humphrey Noyes’ goal was not to change the world but to â€Å"construct a social and economic system that would provide an alternative structure within which the self-actualization of the members, through perfectionism, could occur.† When it came to decision making for the group, Noyes gave the impression of operating through discussion and persuasion rather then proclamation, however, in the end Noyes made all final decisions. To act as a democratic type society there was a sort of hierarchy established concerning everyday operational decisions as well as economic policy and other more important matters. Committees discussed the everyday operational decisions. There were twenty-one standing committees with forty-eight different compartments. Committees were held for everything from heating and clothing to dentistry and incidentals. The committees would discuss these things endlessly and they were always making changes. They felt that change was important to keep the devil from finding you. They were so concerned with this that they even changed rooms often. One of the prerequisites for joining the community was holding the belief that John Humphrey Noyes was God’s representative on earth. God inspired him through a...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Learn to Pronounce and Count Cardinal Numbers in Italian

Learn to Pronounce and Count Cardinal Numbers in Italian You might find cardinal (counting) numbers the most useful to know- you will need them to express  time, record dates, do  math, interpret recipe amounts, and, of course, count. In Italian, cardinal numbers are written as one word. Use the following table to memorize numbers from 1 to 100. ITALIAN CARDINAL NUMBERS: 1-100 1 uno OO-noh 2 due DOO-eh 3 tre TREH 4 quattro KWAHT-troh 5 cinque CHEEN-kweh 6 sei SEH-ee 7 sette SET-teh 8 otto OHT-toh 9 nove NOH-veh 10 dieci dee-EH-chee 11 undici OON-dee-chee 12 dodici DOH-dee-chee 13 tredici TREH-dee-chee 14 quattordici kwaht-TOR-dee-chee 15 quindici KWEEN-dee-chee 16 sedici SEH-dee-chee 17 diciassette dee-chahs-SET-teh 18 diciotto dee-CHOHT-toh 19 diciannove dee-chahn-NOH-veh 20 venti VEN-tee 21 ventuno ven-TOO-noh 22 ventidue ven-tee-DOO-eh 23 ventitr ven-tee-TREH 24 ventiquattro ven-tee-KWAHT-troh 25 venticinque ven-tee-CHEEN-kweh 26 ventisei ven-tee-SEH-ee 27 ventisette ven-tee-SET-teh 28 ventotto ven-TOHT-toh 29 ventinove ven-tee-NOH-veh 30 trenta TREN-tah 40 quaranta kwah-RAHN-tah 50 cinquanta cheen-KWAHN-tah 60 sessanta ses-SAHN-tah 70 settanta set-TAHN-ta 80 ottanta oht-TAHN-ta 90 novanta noh-VAHN-tah 100 cento CHEN-toh The numbers  venti,  trenta,  quaranta,  cinquanta, and so on drop the final vowel when combined with  uno  and  otto.  Tre  is written without an accent, but  ventitrà ©,  trentatrà ©, and so on are written with an accent. Beyond 100 Do you remember those good old days before the euros arrival in Italy when you would pay a few thousand  lire  for admission to a museum or a  cappuccino  and  biscotti? Tourists needed more than just the numbers up to 100 to get around.  Lire  are history, but learning numbers greater than 100 might still prove useful. Though they might seem unwieldy, after a bit of practice youll be rolling them off your tongue like a pro. ITALIAN CARDINAL NUMBERS: 100 AND GREATER 100 cento CHEN-toh 101 centouno/centuno cheh-toh-OO-noh/chehn-TOO-noh 150 centocinquanta cheh-toh-cheen-KWAHN-tah 200 duecento doo-eh-CHEN-toh 300 trecento treh-CHEN-toh 400 quattrocento kwaht-troh-CHEN-toh 500 cinquecento cheen-kweh-CHEN-toh 600 seicento seh-ee-CHEN-toh 700 settecento set-the-CHEN-toh 800 ottocento oht-toh-CHEN-toh 900 novecento noh-veh-CHEN-toh 1.000 mille MEEL-leh 1.001 milleuno meel-leh-OO-noh 1.200 milleduecento meel-leh-doo-eh-CHEN-toh 2.000 duemila doo-eh-MEE-lah 10.000 diecimila dee-eh-chee-MEE-lah 15.000 quindicimila kween-dee-chee-MEE-lah 100.000 centomila chen-toh-mee-leh 1.000.000 un milione OON mee-lee-OH-neh 2.000.000 due milioni DOO-eh mee-lee-OH-neh 1.000.000.000 un miliardo OON mee-lee-ARE-doh