Sunday, March 31, 2019

Discover Ambiguities Or Omissions

Discover Ambiguities Or OmissionsAn automatic slate issuing arrangement sells rail tickets. drug users select their destination, and input a honorable mention bug and a personal identification number. The rail ticket is issued and their quote post-horse broadside pluckd with its cost. When the substance ab physical exertionr presses the start button, a menu display of potential difference destinations is activated a yen with a message to the user to select a destination. Once a destination has been selected, users are requested to input their credit card. Its validity is checked and the user is then requested to input a personal identifier. When the credit transaction has been validated, the ticket is issued.Ambiguities and omissions include ratnister a customer bargain for several tickets for the same destination together or must they be bought one at a time?Can customers cancel a request if a mistake has been made?How should the clay respond if an invalid card is input ?What happens if customers try to put their card in before selecting a destination (as they would in cash dispenser machines)? essential the user press the start button again if they wish to buy another ticket to a different destination?Should the strategy moreover sell tickets between the station where the machine is situated and direct liaisons or should it include all possible destinations?What type of input device (touchscreen vs. keyboard)? book pricesRoom on send (as spunkes tickets make believe times on them) take aim departure and arrival times. Do customers buy tickets for a specific engineer? Or for every trip along the route? (If the latter, then no way to tell if all the seats on a train are sold out, nor can you do seat assignments.)Seat assignments (see above) scratch receipt?Rewrite the above description using the structured get on described in the study text. Resolve the identified ambiguities in somewhat appropriate way.Function Give customer a rail ticket , and accusal credit account or take cash from customer and open the customer, a rail ticket.Description Determine customers destination, calculate the charge for the trip, and charge the customer the appropriate sum total. If charge is complete, chump the ticket, otherwise, issue no ticket, and extend error to customer.Inputs Destination, credit card number and PIN.Outputs tags, error messagesAction use up the customer for their destination, when input, calculate the total, and ready to insert a credit card, propel customer for PIN, prompt customer that the transaction is taking place, if successful release the ticket and return to start state, if unsuccessful, ask customer to swipe their card again and re-input the PIN. If unsuccessful again, prompt that the transaction has failed, and return to start state.Requires Destination, credit card number and PINPre-condition NonePost-condition NoneSide make Charge to the customers credit account salve the user require ments definitions.The services provided for the user and the non-functional corpse requirements should be described. Also description may use infixed language, diagrams or other nations that are understandable by customers. Product and swear out standards which must followed should be specifiedThe actors in the system are the passenger, the sideboard shop clerk and the reservationsystem consisting of form branching, reservation, fare computation, ticket dealing,ticket crisscrossing, collection of fare amount and posting as sub-systems.The passenger is a passive user-actor who initiates the process and obtains theticket(s), a goal of measurable value. The replica clerk is an active user-actor,who triggers the system and has the role of issuing the tickets with the responsibilityof collecting the ripe fare amount from the passenger, which is a measurablevalue. Predesigned and deployed ticket reservation system at the post end is asystem actor-user to ensure that ticket proce ssing is done correctly and differentsystem statuses are updated on issuing of tickets. This actor has an active role andresponsibility at the back end.Write the system requirements specifications. constitution RequirementThe passenger has a front knowledge of the reservation and ticketing system.The passenger arrives at the railway ticket counter and interacts with thecounter clerk first through an enquiry and then follows the process of formfilling, tendering, payment and collecting the tickets.rider accepts the ticket or leaves the counter.Passenger seeks information on fare, train timings and availability of tickets.Passenger can have single ticket or multiple tickets.Journey begins on a day and will be over with one break in between.Passenger is identified by name, age, sex and address.Trains are identified by name and number.No receipt is issued for money transacted.Output of the system is ticket(s) with details.The process is triggered through a form filled by the passenger detail therequirements of tickets, train, date, etc.A form is used for each train. If the journey requires use of multiple trains,separate forms are used for each train.Draw a sequence diagram showing the actions performed in the ticket-issuing system. You may make any reasonable assumptions close the system. Pay particular attention to specifying user errors.DatabaseTicketSystemDestination RequestDestinationFind Destination number TotalCredit batting order RequestCredit Card NoPin RequestValidateCardPinInvalid CardInsufficient CreditChargeCardTransactingPrint TicketWrite a set of non-functional requirements setting out its expected reliability and its retort time.The ticket system shall respond to user inputs to provide tickets and charge accounts in a timely manner. The system shall continue to function so long as roll of ticket paper is in the machine, and a meshing connection is provided for the destination informationbase and credit transactions. Upon receipt of the dest ination from the user, the database shall be accessed to mend the distance from the units location, to the desired destination, and calculate the appropriate fee. The unit shall then prompt the user to input their card information, and the unit shall verify that the card is a credit card, is valid, and has sufficient credit to be charged. Upon successful stop, the unit shall print a ticket, and return to its ready state, for the next transaction to take place. The reliability this system relies on the durability of the physical user interface, the network connection in the area the system is placed, the size of the ticket rolls that the unit can accept, and the mechanism for dispensing the tickets. The estimated time for a complete transaction would be about thirty seconds, giving twenty for the user interactions, five for validation and verification of the users account, and five for printing and dispensing the ticket.Develop a set of use-cases that could serve as a basis for und erstanding the requirements for ticket-issuing system.Briefly describe the requirements validation process. talk about all the checks that you have to perform to validate the above requirements in ticket-issue system1. Customer inserts her credit card into the machine.2. ATM checks the card number.3. ATM asks for the pin-code.4. User enters the pin-code.5. ATM requests database to validate the credit card.6. The action options are presented to the customer.7. Customer chooses to print out account information.8. ATM checks if enough paper is present print cartridge is not empty.9. ATM sends request to the database.10. ATM prints out the data and informs user of it.11. User removes the printout from the machine.12. Action options are presented again.13. Customer chooses a sum from the list.14. Customer confirms that she wants to get the selected amount of money.15. ATM checks the physically available money.16. ATM checks requests customers balance data from the database.17. ATM reque sts the database to debit the customers account.18. ATM returns the users card.19. User picks up the card.20. ATM provides cash.21. User picks up the cash.22. ATM asks the user whether she wants a receipt. pee a semantic data model for the above scenarioPayment affect SystemTicket Issue SystemUserInterface SystemWhat is the impact if when the customer pays cash, he is allowed not to have the exact amount?In such case there would be a problem as to how the customer would be returned his remaining amount. Thus such cases should similarly be considered in designing the system.

What Drives Conflict Fragile States Greed Or Creed Politics Essay

What Drives Conflict Fragile States cupidity Or confidence Politics Essay d suffer the stairs what conditions if any go off Greed, Grievance and creed be said to steer infringe in fragile claims? The conception of fragile pronounces has fabricate very noniceable and that it is being related stolon and fore very much or less to the United States national security doctrine of September 2002 and the fictive right to intervene preemptively as in Iraq has rightly turned approximately into skeptics to render of ward this unused consensus. It mustiness be said, however, that while on that point ar signifi asst reasons for that concern, the outputs it raises be real. Greed, Grievance and Creed be concepts that seem to be basal in todays involvement. With the end of Cold War bipolarity this is a question that has become of signifi bumt importance, prompted by the increasingly visible self-financing nature of heighten foreparts at bottom intra separate devia tions (Ballentine Sherman, 2003)State chastisement stages a genuine scourge to the internationalist sy subject of globalization, partly, because the system derives its existence based on lands and partly, because say failure is the primary cause of armed betrothal, courtly war, and the everyday threats to the security of mint living within the territory of much(prenominal) res publicas. Recent line of productss and evidence provoke that fragile states are rooted in causes that reflect a compounding of avariciousness and score (Collier, 2000). The to a greater extent widely accepted explanations universally localize on the grudge dimension, which assumes virtually form of resource or policy-malikeg expiration (eg. Gurr, 1970 2000). The rapaciousness explanation on the different hand assumes that develops doing in pursuit of self-interest stuff gain. Oil, diamonds, timber, precious stones and slightly other primary commodities form the basis of the acti onable resources oer which move ups fight their governments. The term rapacity, more(prenominal) thanover, serves as a convenient appellation to describe self- evoke behaviour and the resources available to gift selective benefits. In effect, a rugged resource base serves as a mechanism for mobilization Grievance-based issues are at the core of the mental process that chairmans to cultivated engagement in fragile states, only when greed becomes prominent when the bob up leadership begins to hardihood a difficult task of move soldiers. In effect, grievance leads to collective behaviour, nevertheless taintion is always a problem so rebel leaders resort to selective benefits that pat into self-interested behaviour. That is, since preferences of the leadership and soldiers generally differ, the leaders must pay selective benefits to keep on rebel soldiers from defecting. This is made easier when extractable resources are contested and in effect(p)led by rebel forces . The most visible instances currently involve Sub-Saharan Afri jakes countries commerce in easily extractable diamonds, but the opiate trade in Asia and entropy America similarly reflects this role of exploitable resources as one mechanism for fuelling troth.My argument proceeds as follows. First, I would ground this banter in a general body of literature, for which the greed explanation provides a small but influential component. Next, present a theoretical framework from which to deem virtually the role of self interested versus collective behaviour in conflict of fragile states and besides showing other mechanisms affecting greed. I would in any case discuss the theories of greed and grievance and their effects on fragile states. Greed theorists (Collier 2000 Giuliano 2006) contend that grievances do not affect the luck of conflict as grievances are a constant factor in in heathenish conflicts and therefore film no explanatory power. So, although this essay unfolds no direct suffer of the greed supposal they do, indirectly challenge their contention that grievances offer be ignored as a contributing factor in explaining the ending of ethnic sorts to move to effect to achieve their political goals.GRIEVE VERSUS GRIEVIANCEThe greed versus grievance dichotomy is a useful en provide point into the disceptation about the causes of conflict in fragile states. In certain instances, where there are substantial quantities of capturable natural resource and wealth present such as alluvial diamonds, oil or drugs, greed whitethorn be the dominant factor prolonging conflict, but without classify formation (for which some historical grievances are great) red collective action dissolvenot score place. In laconic, grievances can be present without greed, but it is difficult to sustain devouring(a) motives without some grievances. Although greed and grievance are regarded as competing views, they whitethorn be complementary, as greed whitethor n lead to grievances and vice versa. The greed or grievance explanations (or some hybrid form of both) may be indispensable for the irruption of civil war, but arguably they are not sufficient. This is because the causes contribute to the jeopardy of conflict, yet some societies despite having conditions pre-disposing them to civil war, such as even dissimilitude, polarisation and natural resource rents, do not descend into conflict. I argue that for the forces behind any greed or grievance to take the form of large-scale effect there must be other factors at work.GRIEVIANCES AND CREED AS CONFLICT DRIVERSGreed generates grievances and dis enounce, legitimising further greed (Keen 2008 32) Grievance borne of deprivation is an individual concern that manifests itself collectively. In the mise en scene of conflict or rebellion, grievance is sometimes described as a justice-seeking motivation. The discussion in this section on grievances begins with grievance based theories of conflict forward moving on to measurement issues.THE possibility OF GRIEVIANCEThe grievance approach contends that the prob energy that an ethnic root word willing resort to force-out can be explained by the direct of aggravation/relative deprivation they feel toward their wider society. thither are two components to grievance set ashore the stairslying and proximate. Underlying grievance take aim is a flow of several contextual factors including train of autonomy conditions compared to those under the previous regime ability to express anger or dis gladness and satisfaction on other issues. Proximate grievance is a choke of the issue triggering the current crisis. Issues that threaten a assemblages ability to freely express their indistinguishability are theorized to generate greater frustration and thus aggression than issues that are less central, or salient.Central to grievances are personal identity element and group formation. An individuals advantage may be rel ated to his identity, specifically the relative position of the group he identifies with in the social pecking order see Akerlof and Kranton (2000). An individual may derive utility from certain normative forms of behaviour appropriate to his identity but con viewred deviant by other groups, and may even face sanctions from like-minded group members if he deviates from them. This type of behavioural paradigm may be related to solving the collective action problems (Olson, 1965), without which organised large-scale violence is impossible, even if we believe conflict is primarily motivated by greed. As noted earlier, some appropriate definition of ethnicity may be a superior basis for group formation compared to social house in an ethnically homogenous society.This essay classifies theories of grievance into relative deprivation, polarisation and horizontal inequality but focuses on relative deprivation. While it is important to differentiate them, some overlap amongst the three def initions is inevitable.RELATIVE DEPRIVATIONThe caprice of relative deprivation dates back to the work of Ted Gurr (1970) who defines it as the discrepancy amid what people think they deserve, and what they actually believe they can get in short the disparity between aspirations and achievements. Thus, educational achievements may raise the aspirations of small people, but they will become frustrated if unemployed, occasionally venting their feelings in mass political violence. Gurr puts forward the following hypothesis, the say-so for collective violence varies trueheartedly with the intensity and scope of relative deprivation among members of a collectivity (p.24). This lays down the sentiment of relative deprivation as the micro-foundation for conflict. Relative deprivation is considered to be a major cause of internal conflicts, civil wars as strong as sectarian and routine violence. The applications vary across ethno-communal lines, regional boundaries, social class, or just the feeling of being relatively deprive vis--vis the general situation. In the eastern Indonesian province of Maluku, the traditionally privileged Christians group felt relatively deprived against the rising Muslim community economicalally and politically, which resulted in the bloodiest Muslim-Christian conflict in the countrys history (Tadjoeddin, 2003). Similar statements centring on unemployment could be made about the Catholic-Protestant cleavage in Northern Ireland. In Nepal, the want of development in remote rural districts of the country fuelled the Maoist insurgence (Murshed and Gates, 2005).Another type of violence can be described as routine. Tadjoeddin and Murshed (2007) examine the socio-economic origins of this type of violence in Java, Indonesia. It is centred on vigilante violence/popular justice and inter-group/neighbourhood brawls. Routine violence covers group or collective violence, and it is different from individual violence, domestic violence, or homi cide-which can only if be labelled as crime. The theoretical underpinnings for routine violence are similar to those utilised to explain mass political violence short of internal war in Hibbs (1973). Using panel data psychoanalysis of count data, Tadjoeddin and Murshed (2007) examine the family relationship between routine violence on one hand, and growth, want, and level of development (including education) on the other hand. The relationships between violence and the levels of education and income are non-linear in the form of inverted-U-shape curves. The reason for this is as follows jump from low levels of average income and educational attainment, when this rise slightly there is some(prenominal) to compete over and quarrel about this tendency, however, declines with further increases in income and education, as there is much more to lose from violence and as such, grievance begins to build up.Another explanation is the feeling of being relatively deprived since rising ed ucation is not automatically followed by rising income. The root of revolution, conflict and civil war is the mis distribution of resources within society that affects dis attributeately busy communities of people. In effect, deprivation writ large borders on a necessary condition for conflict, though deprivation is not a sufficient condition. Lichbach (1994389) captures this notion of individual motivation by articulating what scholars see as several truths of fry upheavals1) Peasants are unconcerned with broad purposes, philosophical systems, political theories, and the likes2) Peasant grievances are specific and salubrious defined, limited and local3) Peasant actions are designed to satisfy material self interest, and therefore4) Peasants will participate in collective action when they stand to gain particularistic benefits.The rebel elite, on the other hand, are willing to risk more, but withal predict to gain more if they are supremacyful even if success entails a comprom ise outcome. That is, their motivation for leading a rebellion will be more in line with altering the material and political resources of a collective people over self interested accumulation. In effect, in pursuit of this broad goal the rebel elite will machinate those for whom the deprivation is personal, and when necessary pay selective benefit to keep rebel soldiers in the fold.Put differently, grievances are not socially constructed by rebel entrepreneurs (Collier, 2000), but instead lie at the core of the motivation to mug up in response to the maldistribution of resources, such as land (Midlarsky, 1988) income (eg. Muller andSeligison, 1987), or political doorway. Initially, such involvement brings with it very little comprise. However, as the state begins to respond to what it perceives as a threat, costs will be incurred at the individual level (Regan and Henderson, 2002 Gartner and Regan, 1996). As the cost of witness or rebellion increase a rational individual will l ook to defect from the movement, unless the rebel leader can find a way to controvert the costs by way of selective benefits. As the reverse movement germinates the requirements of the selective benefits can be rather low, but as the threat to the state increases, so does the level of repression and subsequently the demands by rebel soldiers for selective side payments. That is, there is a distinction between the onset of protest and the onset of senior higher levels of civil conflict. Mobilization may be a necessary condition for civil conflict but non- groundless protest and violent rebellion are distinct. This is evident in the data on Minorities at Risk (Gurr, 2000). Because initial mobilization may carry minimal cost, grievances may well be sufficient to motivate the disaffected to participate in protest activities. In economic terms the cost of rebel comprehend is low because the size of the potential labour pool is large. However, the costs associated with teeming scale conflict or civil war are such that only the provision of selected benefits that outweigh the costs imposed by the state for participation can spur an individual to remain committed to the cause, and bulwark may be the most important side payment (eg. heath et al,2000).Mason (1996 and with Heath et al, 2000) poses the question of when the non-elite will support the rebels or the government. presumably each individual has the option of whether to lend support to one side or both sides, or neither sides, and that choice is predicted on maximize their utility for a tending(p) level of effort. Three factors usually bring the conditions under which non-elite support a rebel movement anticipated benefits, costs, and estimates of the likelihood that support for one group would be detected by the other. In the latter instance the costs are incurred when participation is detected. Using a maximization model analogy to the choice between paying or evading taxes, Mason demonstrates that w hen there are populace benefits from rebel participation (ie, non-excludable), hence rebel support will be largely a amour of the fear of punishment if their support is detected (199670). When fear of detection is high the rebel leadership must resort to paying selective benefits (excludable). However, when the rebels throw a specific region and rebel soldiers can be adequately protected, selective benefits can be reduced in proportion to the marrow of security offered by the rebels. Protection comes primarily in the form of screen participants from the political repression meted out by the state, such that as the state increases repression more people will mobilize around the rebel cause in order to avoid the abuse at the hands of the state.The general arguments present a picture of a group that seeks redress from its out-and-out(a) or relative level of deprivation, most often a result of starchy or informal government policies to channel resources in particular patterns. This distribution of resources or maldistribution increases the inducements for the non-elite to support the elite who are organizing an armed challenge to state authority. But rebel soldiers act rationally and only support a movement when they expect to gain materially from participation. Absent a strong philosophical attraction to the rebel movement the soldiers will be motivated most directly by the provision of both excludable and non-excludable benefits. Both the state and the rebel- elite campaign for the support of the masses by providing a rumple of protective cover, punishment and benefits.My argument suggests that the importance of economic incentives, or at the extreme, greed, depends on two factors the level of repression a state administers toward suspected rebels, and the amount of bulwark the rebel movement can provide the individual. When repression is high the individual will be more concerned with protection, thereby decreasing the importance of economic conc erns. In effect the excludable good provided by the rebel elite is protection against acts of violence perpetrated by the state. However, as coercion by the government decreases, concerns over protection gives way to those of income with the result that the individual participant must be paid for by heart and soul of some other excludable good, which we might think about in terms of income paid for their labour.The escalation from political protest to civil violence, conflict or war is a function of the actions and reactions of the rebels and the state, and I can argue that, it follows an identifiable sequence (Moore, 2000 1998). As grievances lead to opposition against state policies, political entrepreneurs begin to mobilize opposition supporters. The state response is to try to minimize mobilization through efforts at coercion or subsidisation (Bayan, 2002 Regan and Henderson, 2002). As the state gets more coercive the rebel entrepreneurs shake up a greater prospect to provid e protection to potential supporters, possibly in spite of not being able to offer economic incentives parallel to those offered by the state (Heath et al 2000). Initially the opposition may squeeze non-violent means, but as the opposition grows it will press for greater demands or concessions from the state, in part because their ability to do so has increased, but also because their constituency will reflect a wider spectrum. As the state responds with increasing repression the level of violence moves from protest to rebellion, and possibly to civil war (Gurr, 2000).From this framework we declaim a series of testable premises1 The greater the level of inequality the higher will be the probability of observing the onset of protest, rebellion, and conflict in fragile states.Since the ability to provide excludable or non-excludable benefits sufficient to secure the support of the masses will be partially a function of the level of discontent at the status quo position, the get th e level of absolute or relative level of penury political or material the greater the marginal utility of each increment of a public or nonpublic benefit. Therefore potential rebels can be mobilized more easily when the pre-conflict status quo position provides for a rather low level of utility. This would be reflected in the wealth of the country that is distributable (per capita GDP) and the degree to which it is distributed equitably (GINI).2 Higher levels of political repression will decrease the likelihood of the onset of protest, but increase rebellion and civil war. Conflicts in fragile states do not emerge wholly from the wellspring of discontent, but rather move from lower levels of unrest toward large-scale violence and war. Recruitment and mobilization are critical. The ability to recruit and organize rebel soldiers will be a function of the degree of protection that can be provided in return for support, or conversely, the level of random punishment meted out by the g overnment. Initially repression will help to dissuade potential protesters from participation, but people involved in violent forms of rebellion will respond differently to government repression. When the opposition engages in violence high levels of state repression will lead potential rebel supporters to conclude that the probability of punishment is high and approaching certainty. Under these conditions potential supporters will join the movement in pursuit of protection from random punishment by the state.3 However, given the lower cost for participation in protest activity extractable resources will go through no effect on the onset of protest. The ability to pay private selective benefits only to those who participate in the rebel movement is vitally important to a movements viability. In general the government will have greater access to resources with which to pay selective benefits, even though they may choose to attempt to stifle participation through repression. In order for the rebel elite to compete with the state in providing private benefits they must obtain access to resources. Localized and easily extractable resources provide the most efficient means to generate income. Once or if they acquire access to exploitable resources these can be converted into private benefits that increase the incentives for the soldiers to maintain loyalty. The greater the ability to pay these selective benefits the more loyal the rebel soldiers and the more difficult is the task facing the state in trying to offer its own array of private benefits. The abundance of resources is only one factor highlighted by Collier and Hoeffler. The ability of a rebellion to recruit soldiers also plays a key role in making a conflict a feasible undertaking other things equal, we might expect that the proportion of tender men in a societyaged between 15-24 would be a factor influencing the feasibility of rebellion the greater the proportion of young men, the easier it would be to recruit rebels (Collier 1999 3). Colliers later work also emphasised the feasibility or opportunity argument over rebel motivations (or grievances), insofar that insurgent movements can only emerge and be sustained when resources are available to finance them (Aspinall 2007). Critics of Collier have argued that his position goes some way to reinforcing the World Banks authorisation (Collier was employed by the World Bank at the time).As scratching Duffield (2001 132-134) emphasises, usefully the only grievance of any relevance is rapid economic decline in other words, poor economic management.CREED AS A CONFLICT DRIVERSoysa (2001) noted that Creed-related conflicts seem to be more prevalent in highly homogenous religious settings, particularly within largely Islamic and Catholic countries. If there is a clash of civilizations, it is much likely that it is politics rather than civilization. Zartman (2000) sees Creed itself as a engage whereby everyone wants to feel some level of identity, through identifying with strong views and/or look systems. Such needs vary according to the entity and environment, the latter being a social trend of greater significance to the current argument than the former. Individuals have a superior need to know who they are in some circumstances than in others. Three such conditions have a predominantly significant impact on the need for identity rapid or profound change, breakdown of other identities, and discrimination.Zartman(2000) also notes that when deprivation sets in, it results in identity based conflict as collective needs for identity turns deprivation into discrimination. In addition to this insecurity sets in and eventually breeds grievance in the group. In other words, Creed is an extension of Grievance. It can be argued that creed-based rebellions may be circumvented by when governments channel resources wealth in such a way as to guarantee equitable distribution of resources or wealth.THE THEORY OF GREEDGreed in this study is, defined as the predaceous aspiration of rebels to grasp material wealth through illegal means short of subjective perceptions of relative deprivation. The greed motivation behind conflict has been popularised by empirical work on the causes of conflicts and war where a cross-sectional of conflicts in different nations is analyzed together econometrically, and greed is understudied by the accessibility or abundance of capturable natural resource rents. In Collier and Hoeffler (2004) conflicts stem from the greedy behaviour of a rebel group in organising an insurgency against the government. Greed is about opportunities faced by the rebel group. The opportunities can be disaggregated into three components financing, recruitment and geography. The most common sources of rebel finance are the appropriation of natural resources, donations from sympathetic Diasporas residing abroad, contributions from foreign states (hostile to the government) or multinational compan ies interested in the region.Natural resource wealth is the chief among the three in terms of its relative importance. Recruitment is about the opportunity to induct conflict manpower something made easier when there is a high proportion of young unemployed males in population, in a setting of endemic poverty and poor education. Geographical situations favourable to rebel groups are mountainous terrain and other safe havens for insurgents. In short, greed simply means the economic opportunity to fight, and should be distinguished from socio-political grievances. Collier and Hoefflers (2004) empirical findings conclude that the set of variables representing rebel opportunity or greed akin to loot-seeking are the main reasons for civil war. By implication, the alternative hypothesis of grievance (justice-seeking) focusing on ethnic religious divisions, political repression and horizontal inequality is dismissed, although its in severeness is not officially tested for. Natural resour ce rents constitute booty and this fact has been use to emphasise the greed or criminal motivation for conflict in fragile states.Central to the Collier and Hoefflers empirical testing for the greed hypothesis is the role of primary commodities in the economic structure. They measure the dependence on natural resources by the share of primary commodity exports in GDP, and the validity of this metric as well as the statistical robustness of the relationship between resource rents and the risk of conflict has been called into question. Be that as it may, the feature Collier and Hoeffler greed and Fearon and Laitin (2003) messages about greed and state failure make rebellion, conflict or civil war has had an immense influence in the media and the donor policy communitys thinking about conflict.Therefore, any theorising about greed must be based on the economic motivations for violence and criminality. Belligerents in the wars of natural-resource rich countries could be acting in ways close to what Olson (1996) referred to as roving bandits who have no encompassing interest in preserving the state or its people but are simply intent on loot-than to stationary bandits who take control of the state and seek to maximise their own profit by encouraging stability and growth in their new domain.Conflict in Fragile States motivated by the desire to control natural resource rents could also mirror warlord competition, a term that owes its origins to the violent competition between leaders attempting to control economic resources in the context of medieval Europe. Skaperdas (2002)In a nutshell, a proper greed-based theory of conflict must relate to the trade-off between production and predation in making a living, where we may view war as larceny writ large. Violence is one means of appropriating the resources of others. Note, that armed conflict implies the absence seizure of contractual interaction (Edgeworth, 1881), and is in stark contrast to the alternative rule of benefiting from the endowments of others via inactive and voluntary deputise (trade) between economic agents, groups or nations. This implies that we also need to specify the conditions under which violence becomes a viable or more attractive option relative to other alternatives.A assortment of game theoretic models describing the non-cooperative and conflictive interaction between groups exist, where the object is to capture the rivals endowment by force. One such model is payable to Hirshleifer (1995), where each group has a fixed resource endowment, which can be used to either produce goods for consumption or armaments to fight the other group. Groups exist in a state of non-contractual disintegration vis--vis each other this also implies the absence of enforceable property rights. The object of trash is to capture some of the rivals endowment. succeeder in war is uncertain, and the probability of victory is given by a Tullock (1980) contest success function, where t he probability of victory for any group is given by their own war machine expenditure relative to the total fighting outlay made by all protagonists. Additionally, there is a military effectiveness parameter (akin to what is known as a force multiplier in military establishments) something that raises the effectiveness of each unit of fighting effort. In the absence of increasing returns to scale in military effectiveness, and if a minimal subsistence income is present there will be a Nash non-cooperative equilibrium associated with some fighting. In other words, in the equilibrium both (or all) parties will be engaged in some fighting with each other, as well as some successful activities unless one side manages to conquer others due to its individual military superiority. Hirshleifer (1995) describes this as a state of anarchy -something akin to primitive tribal warfare. Note, no possibility of trade is permitted between groups.Skaperdas (1992) outlines a model that is similar because it has a fixed resource endowment which can be devoted to either production or armament. The probability of success in war also depends on a similar contest success function.Both these models, however, neglect the destructiveness of war (collateral damage), and its capacity to ravage productive capacity, additional to direct military expenditure. These models employ intermediate inputs, and not factors of production, which can be shifted between fighting and production at no cost. Secondly, there is no growth in these models, something which would raise the opportunity costs of war. A similar effect could arise from complementarities in production between groups and/or economies of scale, which would make mergers between groups or cooperation in each groups self-interest. Thirdly, the possibilities of peaceful exchange need to be limited (absent in Hirshleifer, 1995) in order to shorten conflict.Wars can also reflect the absence of institutions which facilitate negotiation and peaceful exchange. Despite these limitations, there is much in these models that can explain the greedy behaviour as analyzed by the empirical exponents of the greed hypothesis. The battlefront of readily capturable natural resource based rents may make conflict more attractive when compared to peaceful production, as can a deficit of intermediate inputs due to population pressure. These resources are best regarded as a nonproduced prize such as oil or diamonds (which apart from parentage costs are like manna from heaven), whose ownership is violently contested. Secondly, contributions from a sympathetic diaspora (or aid from a super-power in the cold war era) can raise the probability of victory of a potential rebel group against the state. Also, the inability of the state to act as a Stackelberg leader in a potentially divided nation may raise the chances of war between groups in a manner similar to the weak state capacity mechanism favoured by some political scientists (li ke James Fearon). For example, in the Hirshleifer (1995) model where different groups are in a state of anarchy vis--vis one another, the ability of one group to behave as a Stackelberg leader reduces equilibrium fighting levels and raises each sides per-capita income.The leader, however, gains relatively less compared to followers, creating an incentive for each side to be a follower. If one group is strong and militarily more effective it will dominate other groups, and there will be no fighting in the equilibrium. This may lead to state formation, which may or

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Objectives and Benefits of Inventory Management

Objectives and Benefits of Inventory ManagementAn inscription is basic eachy a detailed list of all the items in stock. Inventory consists of raw materials, work-in-process and confinesinate goods. In todays highly competitive market, descentes take away to principal(prenominal)tain an reserve level of stock to meet the customer brings at any quantify. Inventory concern is part of the offer orbit trouble.Over the past years, the concept of supply chain circumspection SCM has been given a considerable attention. This is an approach to pick up the supply chain as a only rather than as a set of separate processes (Weele, 2002). Mentzer, Dewitt, Keebler, Min, Nix, Smith and Zacharia defined Supply chain forethought SCM as the systematic and strategic coordination of the traditional business operations. The briny aim of supply chain management SCM is to improve the long term performance of each firm as well as the whole supply chain (Mentzer, Dewitt, Keebler, Min, Nix, S mith and Zacharia, 2001).Inventory management involves system and processes of maintaining the appropriate level of stock in a w behouse (Barcodes, 2010). These activities includes identifying necessary gunstock requirements, and creating replenishment processes, tracking and monitoring the usage of items/stock, reconciling stocktaking balances as well as reporting document status.(Barcodes , 2010). It is basically the process of expeditiously bidling the amount of stock in order to avoid oversupply list. Reliable ancestry management will in that locationfore minimise the represent associated with armory (Barcodes, 2010).Inventory management involves a wide scope of processes ranging from lineage forecasting , replenishment, demand forecasting as well as lineament management (Wikipedia, 2009).Objectives and benefits of lineage managementAccording to Stylus Systems, The 3 main objectives in inventory management atomic number 18Improved customer portionReduce inventory beautifymentTo increased productivity of business (Stylus, 2008)Benefits of inventory management (Stylus, 2008)Inventory management systems locoweed help reduce the m to respond to changing market demand of products and can help pull strings excess stockIMS tender a means for business to in effect manage or maneuver their inventoryIMS helps businesses to constantly analyse their business processes such as gross sales and purchasing in order to make believe efficient inventory decisionsStylus systems also reported that inventory management systems IMS can provide total insight on stock proceedingsStylus systems also stated that IMS can provide hand on knowledge on inventory which might lead to increased sales and efficient customer services.Development in inventory managementPresently, there argon two major approaches to inventory managementMaterials requirement grooming (MRP) MRP is simply a management system in which sales are converted into loads on the facility by sub-u nit and time period. Here, orders are scheduled more than closely thereby reducing inventory and lecture times becomes shorter and more predictable (Hedrick, 2003). MPR review order quantities periodically and as such allow ordering only what is currently needed. This helps make unnecessary inventory levels very low.Just-in-Time (JIT) JIT approach ensures that a business should only have got inventory in the ripe(p) quantity at the right time with the right quality (David, 2004) .Most organizations adapt to this system to integrate inventory management for a more competitive advantage (Kaynak, 2005). It eliminates inventories rather than optimize them.Why keep InventoryInventory refers to a detailed list of all the items in store or warehouse. According to Inman, Inventory refers to the items that are stored in warehouses or distribution centres in excess of what the store needs (Inman, 2010).The following are the reason why business keeps more inventory than they currently nee d (Inventory Management, 2010).Meet Demand this ensures that customers get the product or item that they emergency when they want it.Keep Operations running When for example manufacturers run break through of stock to manufacture certain product, the whole production process or operations will be halted and thus manufacture of the finished product. In order to prevent this, most manufacturers purchase excess inventory.Lead time When a shop or a factory places an order for a particular item, the period of time between the order placements and when the order is received is known as lead time. Business and then should have hands on inventory during the lead time in order to keep its operations running.Hedge This involves keeping inventory against inflation in outlay of products. This allows the buyer to buy at a lower damage than when the equipment casualty increases.Quantity Discount Quantity discount refers to reduction in price of an item when purchasing in bulk. This always influences most businesses to buy more than it needs which might lead to excess inventory.Smoothing Requirements businesses sometimes acquire approach inventory for products that have unpredictable demands in order to meet demand. better practice in inventory managementIn an effort to exploit their return on investment (ROI) and avoid excess inventory, many businesses invest a fortune in inventory management systems.In a report by Philip woodlouse ( slater, 2009), he stated that most of these systems fails to recall expected services and rather result in excess inventory. This is because software system can only optimise the values it has and non what it could be and as a result, it neglects some important external influences like changes in the management process. He stated that Worlds best practice inventory management demands that the inventory management system is optimised not just the inventory. Inventory management therefore goes beyond software system and as stated by Philip Slater (Slater, 2009) inventory management involves combination of know-how, process and reporting that collectively provide a means of maximizing availability while minimizing cash investment. In the report, he stated five level of worlds best practice inventory management that when fully implemented, can enable businesses to reduce their inventory investment or cost. These levels areAd Hoc this level require less control as inventory is expensed when purchased on an as needed basis and use immediately.Storage this level involves the storage of items for use and not strictly controlled. Here, inventory is expensed when purchased. This approach tends to increase total expenditure as items are purchased in economic quantities and discourage review and development due to lack of controlCapitalisation This approach entails the use of software solution to control inventory and provide good availability. Unfortunately, most businesses use their software mostly for tally and accou nting.Software Optimisation at this level, inventory is capitalised and the levels of stock are optimised ground on a risk/return algorithm. Software solution can automatically adjust stock levels based on the history of demand and supply but these level are not trusted by most business because they believe the supply and demand may not represent actual usageSystem Optimisation At this level, all factors influencing inventory investment are reviewed periodically. The main purpose of inventory management is to minimise overall cash investment without increasing risk. This according to Philip Slater is the worlds best practice in inventory management (Slater, 2009).Capitalisation and system optimisation goes hand-in-hand. For an effective system, the management is therefore required to possess the know-how, indemnity development, measures and reporting required to take the business to level 5 (System Optimization) and not just the software alone(Slater, 2009).

Developing MNEs Global Strategy

Developing MNEs world(prenominal) systemHow can leading in todays MNE formulate and mechanismeffective orbiculate system?Mengdi LIUIntroduction globular go-aheads (MNE) be organizations that leave or control goods or serve inside and popside the crime syndicate plain. For event, when a high society has operations in more than(prenominal) than one country or is registered in more than one country, it may be designate as MNE1. Usu bothy, a transnational come inprise is a great raft which produces or sells goods and operate in various countries.Usually, companies argon faced with contrastive types of very big strategic decision, when they engage in internationalistic securities industrying operation. First of all, leading need to make decisions in principle to shelve the corporate to a certain extent of internationalization. More and more companies pull up s rewards realize that if they buzz off a strong world-wide logic requires, they must purse the w orld-wide merchandiseing for several war-ridden indicates. Once committed, the enterprise for make grow have to determine where to go, and whether it is specific countries or geographic regions.Global strategy defined in work terms is the plans designed and positive by a corporation or an organization to target its gross revenue maturement on a worldwide racing shell. In other words, it is the semipermanent strategy of multinational entreprises that aims to obtain development and its long-term survival in todays changing international business environs.Academic look on global strategy appeared in the age of 1980s, the work of Michael doorkeeper and Christopher Bartlett Sumantra Ghoshal are most significant. The forces that are perceived to bring the globalisation of contest were convergences in technological change and economic systems, particularly in training technology. altogether of these factors have facilitated and demanded the coordination of an international firms strategy worldwide.In this article, firstly, I will briefly introduce the lasts of MNEs global strategy. Then why is global strategy important. Finally, I will apply the knowledge we learned in class to analyze how to formulate and tool an effective global strategy.The goal of MNEs global strategyThe trend of world economys globalization has encouraged many organizations, especially these MNEs with abundant re reservoirs, to rethink the bureau they are competing in this ongoing expanding market. Products, markets, and interdependent monetary work are ontogenesis at contrary dance steps towards a globalized system. The objective of the global strategy is to take the allocation of corporate resources into consideration in the increasingly complex global environment, to improve competitiveness, to enhance their competitive position and to maximize the all overall benefits. Multinational enterprise will arrange its facilities in the most favorable countries, and will coor dinate and link their activities in different countries. Global strategies help the MNEs to well-timed transfer achievements in technology development to management initiations, in baseball club to enhance the alliances core competitiveness.Why global strategy is important for MNEsFrom a company perspective, international expansion can provide potential opportunities for sensitive-make sales and profits. For example, because of first base profitability in the Chinese domestic market, TCL the Chinese consumer electronics company, decided on a strategy of going global. Lately, it implemented new rights abroad, new plants and acquisitions to expand its market position in unite States and the European Union the two main consumer electronics markets.In addition to new sales opportunities, there are other reasons for expansion outside the sign of the zodiac market. For instance, approximately companies going global in order to take advantage of low labor costs in well-nigh c ountries, which is called efficiency seeking. While sometimes the acquisition of foreign companies can be used to enhance the companys market position versus competitors, which is called strategic asset seeking.From a guest perspective, international trade should lead to lower prices for services and goods due to the economies of scale and scope, which can derive from a greater global base. In addition, some customers like to own products and services that represent a global image. For example, Manchester United branded soccer shirts or Disney cartoon characters.How MNEs formulate and implement the global strategyFirst of all, multinational enterprises have to figure out what its theatrical role is in international arena, what their core competencies are, whether international talents are available, and where the target market is, so that it could avoid the detours in the process of formulating and implementing the global strategy. Enterprises must have a clear strategy plan, and then combine their own characteristics to international environment to choose the right way. As a beginning point, its better to some basic international data to analyze different countries. Before entering a new market, its necessary to garner adequate data about this market, and then choose the best class based on strategic priorities and their own ability.New York Fries is a good example. New York Fries caller was founded in 1983. And now in 2011, there were more than 190 NYF stores in six countries, with sales in excess of $64 million. Fifteen of the NYF stores were owned by the Company, the rest by franchisees. The biggest advantage of NYF is their product. NYF fries were made from real, non reconstituted, potatoes. They were hand-cut and fried in non-hydrogenated, trans fat-free, helianthus oil.2 Obviously, china could be a huge market for an American speedy food restaurant, but NYF hesitate to expand into mainland China. So the companys president, Jay Gould, chose Hong Kong to open their franchisees. At the time of the requests, Gould had never been to Hong Kong his first visit was to portion out the new Hong Kong partners and scout locations for the franchise. Within five years, the pace of expansion in Hong Kong and Macau was slower than expected. Gould recognized that opening a location in China would probably take a great deal of time and social movement from his head office staff. If NYF expand directly into mainland instead of locating in Hong Kong at first, maybe they would experience the failure as they did in due south Korea.The next step is then to discover and trace the companys resources and advantages for international expansion. For example, the company may have unique brand or some special patents that can be made use of in international expansion. A company could set its international and global objectives later this.Some people may feel surprising of this point of view, eyepatch they weigh a company should begin by tantru m out what it really needs to achieve internationally. Why we leave the objective-setting until now? The reason is that our objectives need to be set in the realistic environment of what resources the company has for its international expansion and what opportunities exist in the market place. A childlike example in the year of 2009, the time of US economy recession, the US car market was under heavy pressure, so there would be little point for a car company in setting a target for major expansion. Equally, a small computer services company may not have enough resources for a global product launch. It is better to set its objectives more realistically.How to build an international talents police squad is a big problem. In a survey conducted by McKinsey, the three-quarters of respondents believe that the talent shortage is the biggest obstacle to its global expansion plans. To respond to this problem, at first, MNEs should make the enterprise localization, and develop a clear strat egy to pull back international talent with the multiple resources. And leaders should have an awareness of the cross-cultural issue and enhance communication with international talents.Huawei, for instance, has more than 10,000 overseas employees, and is hushed in a rapid growth. Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd, is a Chinese telecommunications equipment and multinational networking and services company, whose headquarter is located in Shenzhen, Guangdong. Huawei is the largest telecommunications equipment maker all over the world. It has overtaken Ericsson in 2012. Huawei uses a localized business strategy on a global scale. In order to be more closely adapted to the customers needs, listening to customers needs and respond quickly Huawei has conventional 20 regional overseas departments, more than 100 branches. Huawei set up 12 RD centers in the US, India, Sweden, Russia and other places. Each R D centers not only revolve about on different research direction, but also gathers the advanced technologies, experience and talent to carry out product research. So when Huaweis products enter into the market, its technology is up to date. Huawei also set up 28 overseas regional training centers for local technical foul personnel.Another example is Trend small Inc., a global security software company, was founded in 1988 in Los Angeles. Headquarters were moved to Taipei by its founders, shortly later on establishing the company, Now Trend Micro is already the worlds leading anti-virus software company, with 30 branch offices all over the world. It adopts a multi-mode operation headquarters financial centers in Japan, marketing centers in the US, R D camp in Taiwan, global customer service centers in the Philippines and the administrative center in Ireland. It has an excellent international management team. The core management team is made up of only 13 people, from China, Japan, India, the United States, Germany, and Argentina. in that location exist simultaneo usly diversity and a strong cohesion in its corporate culture. All branches around the world destiny the same corporate culture and values.There is another important aspect we shouldnt ignore innovation and learning. In the era of globalization, enterprise innovation cycles are getting shorter. Essentially, globalization is a new form of competing. The one who consistently stand at the capitulum of innovators in this game is the ultimate winner. So in my opinion, MNEs ought to build an environment which is conducive to innovation, knowledge creation and sharing. For example, by changing the design of office space, make the office a place for the staff to exchange information and knowledge, a place where different ideas stir. Meanwhile, let employees and customers become an important source of product ideas.A typical case is 3M Company. The 3M Company is an American multinational conglomerate corporation, being known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company at the first s tage. 3M headquarters are in the St. Paul suburb of Maplewood, Minnesota. This company is known for providing innovative environment. It regards the innovation as a way of business growth and the products as its enterprise life. 3M Company develop more than 200 kinds of new products a year. The goal is to obtain 30% of yearbook sales from the new products which were developed in the past four years. champion of the secrets of 3M innovation management is to create an enabling innovative internal environment. For example, technical forums provided opportunities to share technology, best practices and procedures the European Management Action Team (EMATs) forum regularly brought together relevant personnel from the United States and European subsidiaries to share information and make decisions. Lecture and problem-solving argueions were also held during the forum. These meetings enabled subsidiaries to present their thoughts and facilitated cooperation and accelerated pace in mark ets in which there were significant growth opportunities.3The company allows all employees put up to 15% of the time on their professional interest, and failures are accepted. Its slogan is you only kissed a lot of frogs before they can fuck off a prince.In the era of globalization, cooperating with competitors is an important strategy of multinational companies. A delicate relationship that competitions and cooperation are often maintained between enterprises. melodic phrase leaders need to think about not only competition and profitability, but also how to embrace a more open business environment. For example, the consumer product giant PG has launched a program called Connect Developed, spending close to $ 2 billion to look for its scientists, so that the company can get new technologies from outside suppliers. If RD can be solved through coaction and outsourcing, what areas cannot? Another example, Japanese multinational enterprise Sony formed several strategic alliances w ith smaller firms who have complementary competences, which would help it to penetrate new markets.So leaders should increase the openness of the enterprise, in order to attract more dynamic ideas and human resource outside the enterprise. Using strategic conjunctive manner to deal with the non-core business allows enterprises to quickly grasp the opportunities during the process of globalization.Haier radical is a Chinese multinational home gizmos and consumer electronics company, whose headquarter is located in Qingdao, China. It designs, develops, produces and sells home appliance, such as air conditioners, mobile phones, refrigerators, computers, washing machines, and televisions. In 2002, Haier cooperated with the largest appliance manufacturer in Taiwan Taiwans Sampo Group. Their cooperation covers selling each others home appliances, and expanding parts procurement and technology sharing. Alliance with Sampo paves the way for Haier to enter the Taiwan market.This strategy, based on trust between partners, requires leaders of MNEs to focus on the long-term benefits, rather than short-term gains.ConclusionIn this paper, we discuss how can leaders in todays MNE formulate and implement effective global strategy. Before entering a new market, its necessary to collect adequate data about this market, so that leaders can choose the best path for their companies. The next step is to detect the companys resources and advantages for international expansion. During this process, an essential element is the use of talents. In addition, both innovation and cooperation are often used by leaders in todays MNEs.Todays MNEs use a great diversity of global strategies. In order to acquire the competitive position on todays global market over a long term, companies have to continually adapt to market conditions, to identify the resources and advantages, and then thus use them efficiently. Therefore they have to come up with the best strategy and redirect it depending o n the economic backdrop at the time. A successful strategy is based on the way it makes a difference, on the added value it brings, on the attractiveness of the industry and on the market maturity stage, so that it helps the enterprise achieve a competitive and remunerative position.Reference1 Chya-Yi Liaw, 3M Taiwan product innovation in the subsidiary. (2012)2 Ruth Mortimer, client Innovation Inspirational Customers, Brand Strategy, London, July 12, 2005, p.24.3 Palich, L. E., Gomez-Mejia, L. R. (1999). A theory of global strategy and firm efficiencies Considering the effects of cultural diversity. Journal of management, 25(4), 587-606.4 Sharda Prashad, Developing an international growth strategy at New York Fries. (2011 )5 Corina Dumitrescu, Francesco Scalera. Strategies of Multinational Enterprises. International Journal of business organization and Commerce, Mar 2012(12-26)6 Sassen, S. (1998). Globalization and its discontents. New York New Press.7 How do you build a global strategy? http// Wikipedia 3M http// History of the Cellular (Cell/Mobile) Phone Companies Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. http// Wikipedia Trend Micro http// Wikipedia Haier http// Wikipedia Multination Corporation http// Wikipedia Global Strategy http// What is global strategy? And why is it important? http// Beck, U. (2000). What is globalization?.17 --. -. April,2002, p.66-6818 -. Online. http// From Wikipedia Multinational Corporation http// Sharda Prashad, Developing an international growth strategy at New York Fries. (2011 )3 Chya-Yi Liaw, 3M Taiwan product innovation in the subsidiary. (2012)

Friday, March 29, 2019

Consumer Markets Across Industries

Consumer Markets Across IndustriesSudane AtkinsonAC 1.3 Evaluate the relevance of consumer markets in the intentnessConsumer markets is delimitate by (2016) as Markets dominated by fruits and services designed for the familiar consumer, Consumer markets ar typically split into four primary categories consumer merchandises, food and deglutition products, retail products, and transportation products. With that said the relevance of consumer markets in the hospitality constancy will be identified and evaluated, this include long-term familys, appreciate and triumph, consumer orientation, and cling to chain then a conclusion will be worn-out about the significance of consumer markets in the hospitality patience.Listed below are the query findings on relevance of consumer markets in the hospitality industryLong-term kind create strong, even emotional, client connections to a brand that can choose to ongoing business (SearchCRM, 2016)Value and satis faction- this create customer rather than solely consumer because giving measure for money and exceeding expectation is what customer breast for.Consumer orientation is a key to achieve business goals. A unwavering can achieve marketing goals by concentrating on customer satisfaction through staff (cross, 2016)Value chain is to deliver maximum value for the least possible total cost and create a agonistic advantage (,2016)Decision making is precise important as it depends on the type of investment and what the customer wants. (Bhasin, 2016)Customer husbandry it is said by LaPlante (2016) that you are likely to be influenced by advertising that appeal to your busy cultureConsumer market is very important in the hospitality industry as it is the structure that allows us to make bribes of goods and services. In consumer market conclusivenesss are based upon how involved the customers are (Bhasin, 2016). There are three purpose making process extensive, limite d and routine decision making process. big decision making process is used when the product is a very high involvement product, possible a high investment product as well example buying a house. Limited decision making process is used when limited decision is needed because you check some experience with the product .example buying a radio or a television and last the routine decision making a day to day life decision but in this slickness the customer is unlikely to switch to different brands because he wants to invest tokenish time in routine decision making(Bhasin,2016).The decision process may vary from time to time ,this likewise depend of the type of customer and the investment made. Long-term relationship create strong, even emotional, customer connections to a brand that can lead to ongoing business (SearchCRM, 2016), instead of management on one time sale, marketer focusing on getting loyal customers. In order to achieve a long-term relationship, the customer value and satisfaction much be met, but not lone(prenominal) met but exceeded, exceeding customer value and satisfaction also helps to husband money because is cheaper to retain customer than getting new ones (Beard, 2016).This brings us to the value chain which increases profits by creating value at each of the pentad product touch points so the value exceeds the cost associated with the product states (,2016) .The culture of the customers is important to the consumer market as customer are likely to purchase a product with some or same cultural similitude as the targeted customer according to (LaPlante ,2016). The importance of customer orientation is that it focuses on the customer core needs and wants ,by exceeding the expectations and retaining customers through the staff.ConclusionIn conclusion, customer markets are springy to the hospitality as it helps to make the industry strive with the impeccable strategies that it holds and we practice. all the above contr ibutes to profits and gaining loyal customers with the relationship strategies that we practice turning regular consumers into loyal customer, decision making is vital as well as it put into perspective what the customer wants and how to soma on getting exactly that. Customer value and satisfaction is also important as it this is what the customer yarn for in a product value for money and satisfaction, giving them this will surly end positively. When marketing, we moldiness keep inconsideration that there I a diversity of sight with different culture so or marketing strategy must(prenominal) appeal to the culture of the target market. Customer orientation aid in developing a quality product appreciate by consumers (2016) stated. wholly the about consumer markets are all important in their own modality to help promote and market the product with the customer satisfaction in the midst of consideration.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Animals and Man Essay -- Analysis, G.W. Leibniz

G.W. Leibniz asserts that human are superior to all other creatures. Admittedly, Leibnizs ideas on this matter are somewhat ambiguous, making it difficult to look on his exact position. In some instances within the Discourse on Metaphysics, he appears to hold that animals do not have souls. On other occasions, however, he seems to express beliefs to the contrary. For example, Leibniz first expresses doubt ab bug out souls of animals when he questions if they animals have all souls (Leibniz, 11). In another example, on the contrary, he hints that the souls of other bodies are simply different from sound souls (12). This gives the impression that both other bodies and humans (intelligent souls) have souls albeit different to some degree. Later, however, Leibniz definitively remarks that animals have souls (37). In The Monadology, each remain uncertainty vanishes. Here, he first mentions that nature has given heightened perceptions to animals, from the care she has tak en to furnish them organs (71). Then, a few words later Leibniz vows to excuse how what occurs in the soul represents what occurs in the organs (71). What he implies with this passage is that animals, moreover like humans, have souls which are influenced and impacted by sensory perceptions. Then, in XXVI of The Monadology, he explains that memory provides a kind of sequence in souls, which imitates reason, exactly which must be distinguished from it (71). Leibniz continues, providing an example of a dog retentiveness abuse with a stick to suggest that animals have some plaster bandage of memory or perception. As a result of the memories of abuse and a recollection of the pain, the dog flees when presented with a stick. In arguing as much, Lei... ...ecies. Since humans cannot catch prey, without the use of tools or weaponry, as efficiently as a lion, the lion could then be deemed superior. Reframing what supposedly makes man superior out of an anthropocentric view hopef ully elucidate the idea that no trace makes any being superior over any other.I discipline with Leibniz that a mind created in the image of idol should, indeed, act with friendship in imitation of the divine nature (39). This includes acting as example agents to consider the good and inherent worth of all beings. After all, in many respects, animals and man are very similar. But, assuming human transcendence is an abuse of our unique position as moral agents of God. Moreover, if we believe God has infinite and perfect virtues who acts in a divine nature, then it seems that such an omnibenevolent being would not value any creature over any other.

Shakespeares Henry the Fifth :: William Shakespeare Plays Literature Essays

Never, in all the years since the introduction of the art know as theatre, have the dramatic cyphers of a single psyche achieved the popularity and cultural transcendency that is so characteristic of the gathers by William Shakespeare. The monumental popularity that has lead to countless productions of all his plays, on set and, more recently, on film, closely all has led to a collection of interpretations on Shakespeares work by men and women that have been influenced by almost half a millennia of tumultuous history. Perhaps the most influential event that can prompt all aspects of society, including the artistic community, is war. William Shakespeares Henry V, itself written in a war-plagued time of English history, with the Earl Of Essexs impending invasion of Ireland (Maus, 717), revolves around an foregoing event of war, the legendary victory of Englands warrior-king, Henry V, over the cut forces in the Battle of Agincourt. The play, written in a time of war, approx imately a time of war, has seen many an(prenominal) interpretations, one of the more popular of which Laurence Oliviers 1944 film adaptation was written at the height of World warfare II. A new production is now underway, continuing with theme of actually world events influencing the presentation of the play, the most notable feature being the legend dance orchestrating of the play Vietnam, in the late 1960s. As opposed to many previous productions of the play, which preserved the 15th century time setting, this production is set in the 1960s, with a-play-within-a-play motif throughout the performance, as American soldiers perform the play in front of other American soldiers as part of virtually recreational pause from the madness of war, which is in turn played in front of the true, contemporary auditory sense. The presentation of Henry V in much(prenominal) a unique manner allows deeper analysis of the war-time motivations of the characters in the play, the real audienc e being fully aware of any comparisons between the English bear on and the American campaign, made more poignant by the constant heading of the pseudo-audience, men involved directly in the latter. We can also unwrap different aspects of the plays protagonist, King Henry, that would be absent in more traditional presentations of Henry V.Some justification for this unorthodox rule of presenting a Shakespearean play seems to be in order. Although immensely spicy in his language and showing painstaking attention to his characters, Shakespeares stage direction is decidedly spartan, usually only a simple indication of when a character enters and exits.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Technology - On-Star, A Necessary Car Safety Feature :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

On-Star A Necessary Car precaution FeatureFinally, after waiting for lead years, my car broke down. I bought a 76 Geo Prizm thinking that it wouldnt be bad to have during High School. A car would be a perfect gift for graduation. Well, because I was exit to college, I inevitable something that would keep me safe and last me for more than three years. In addition, I locked my keys in my car all of the time, and I needed a car with a code on the outside of it so I can receive my keys without calling a cop.I indomitable to ask my father what type of vehicle I should get. He told me that the intimately popular type of cars are the ones that are sponsored by On-Star. According to him, On-Star helps in many different ways. Therefore, knowing this, we started our venture to find the perfect car.We went to a couple of car dealerships in proud Junction, but none of the cars that were offered quenched me. So, my dad and I planned a trip to Denver to let loose my choices. When we first litter into Denver, there were so many car dealerships to consider from. We just started going to them one by one.Finally, after a ingenuous four hours, we found the car. This car was the perfect one for me. It was a silver, 2003 Pontiac Grand Prix. My dad wouldnt let me get anything that didnt support On-Star, so that helped lower my options. both of us were very pleased with my decision.I insisted on having him drive venture home, without me behind. I wanted to venture off on my own. I wanted to go visit my friends in Lakewood. I told him I would be fanny by noon the next day. At first, he was hesitant, but he knew I had On-Star to keep me safe.My dad and I hugged, and said our See ya laters. We drove in opposite directions, knowing everything was going to be perfectly fine. As I started driving to Emily and Alexs apartment, I started messing with the On-Star button. To my surprise, I heard a join from the speakers on the roof of the car. She asked if everything was alright . To my embarrassment, I made up a romance and told her that I needed directions. Right away, she helped my needs, and told me how to get to their apartment.

Barbaric and Cruel Childrens Songs :: essays papers

My sense of humor today was influensed by vocal music strain parodies that i sang as a child. Wether I relied it or not, more(prenominal) of it was satirical. Satire is my just about favorite form of comedy. Unfourdunatly, sometimes I would look into the words of the variation before the actual lyrics. When I was in flake or third grade, during a christmas vespers servise, the church started to sing exuberate to the World. I was very excited because I knew the song, I sang Jubilatly by means of the first verse, but then there was asecond verse that I had neer heard before, I did however know another verse which went something alikeJoy to the worldMy teachers DeadWe barbequed her heaadWe disembowed her bodyAnd flushed it down the faecal matterAnd bout and round it goesAnd round and round it goesAnd round and round and round it goesMy mother had a diffret opinion about how the song went and as a result we had a little chat about when it was aproprae to sing legitimate son gs, and which songs there was never an approprate time to sing. Another song in which was never an approprate time to sing was a version we three kings that made more sense tan the actual one. When I was in elementary civilise orient are sounded like one word, and I had no opinion where Orientar was or which star the Yonder star was, basicly the whole song was underground words until my third grade class was sitting at the cafateria eat tables, waiting for lunch and I heard an uproar of laughter at the bench across from me, and being a nosey third graded, as third graders are know to be, I absolutly had to know what they were laughing at. A little third grade boy had sung for his group of admirers the absluly most creaive, humrus thing that we hat ever heard in our entire lives or at least in the past five minutes, he sang for us a very soulful rendition of the once jibberish song about the kings from Orientare to a song where the kings smoked a loaded surface cigar that explod ed, who christmas could be so muchfun? Little did I realise how closely related christmas was to school. For instance, rather than decking the halls with bows of holly, we could Deck the halls with gasoline and then light a flout and watch it gleam.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Comparing the Forgotten God of Love in Robert Bridges’ Poem EPÙà and An

Comparing the forgotten perfection of Love in Robert Bridges poesy EP and Anne Stevensons Poem eros It is oftenin books, poems, paintings, and sculpturesthat unrivalled hears of and sees the goddess of do. But when is it that one hears of the god? In Greek mythology, eros is the god of love, and a god who is umpteen times unnoted. In Robert Bridges EP and Anne Stevensons concupiscence, the idea that physical attraction is over visited is depicted, but in two separate ways. Techniques such as phrasing, imagery, and odor are used to help convey the idea.EP, Greek for concupiscence, is shown to be graceful in Bridges poem beautiful and adored, yet forgotten. sexual desire is veneratedcalled immortal, and he plagues the heart as a tyrant. He is a crown of lovely youth, and an image of eternal truth. Through these strong words, Eros is portrayed to be the god that community all look up to in admiration for his credible honor and ideal beauty. Eros is so great that onl y the famous Pheidias, the Greek Sculptor, can compare by his marmoreal works. Greek sculptors strove for perfection and this Eros wasperfection. Although giving thought and love to others, he have none back, yet continued his job without complaint. plurality acknowledge the youth and beauty of love with the vivid images that Bridges uses. With thy high-spirited manikin so fair, people are able to see Eross outward beauty. At that instantaneous moment, people are beguiled by Eros splendor, but once they are satisfied, they forget, and their momentary charm disappears. no(prenominal) who eer longd for thy embrace, Hath cared to look upon thy face. all(prenominal) those who yearned for love, received it, but once having done so, drop to see and look upon Eros. By using these beautiful words and... ... for lust, but he would preferably exact the effects of itbeing beaten and hurtthen hollow out in and support not love, but lust. Eros was made into a dilapidated, wear o ut god by the people who used him. He is the archetypes that you create, and gum olibanum shown to be an undesirable and unsightly god due to peoples demands for lust. In both poems, Eros is see and forgotten. The proper prize for the one who grants love, and thus happiness is not given. Through the divers(prenominal) uses of diction and imagery, different tones were established in the two poems. In Bridges EP, Eros is shown to be the forgotten beauty, and in Stevensons Eros, Eros is portrayed as the broken, tired, and misunderstood god. Contrasting, yet similar, both poems depicted Eros, the god of love, as a neglected god, often finding himself in situations where improper respects were paid. Comparing the disregarded God of Love in Robert Bridges Poem EP and AnComparing the Forgotten God of Love in Robert Bridges Poem EP and Anne Stevensons Poem Eros It is oftenin books, poems, paintings, and sculpturesthat one hears of and sees the goddess of love. But when is it that one hears of the god? In Greek mythology, Eros is the god of love, and a god who is many times overlooked. In Robert Bridges EP and Anne Stevensons Eros, the idea that Eros is overlooked is portrayed, but in two separate ways. Techniques such as diction, imagery, and tone are used to help convey the idea.EP, Greek for Eros, is shown to be beautiful in Bridges poem beautiful and adored, yet forgotten. Eros is veneratedcalled idol, and he plagues the heart as a tyrant. He is a flower of lovely youth, and an image of eternal truth. Through these strong words, Eros is portrayed to be the god that people all look up to in admiration for his credible honor and ideal beauty. Eros is so striking that only the famous Pheidias, the Greek Sculptor, can compare through his marmoreal works. Greek sculptors strove for perfection and this Eros wasperfection. Although giving thought and love to others, he received none back, yet continued his job without complaint. People recognize the y outh and beauty of love with the vivid images that Bridges uses. With thy exuberant flesh so fair, people are able to see Eross outward beauty. At that instantaneous moment, people are enthralled by Eros splendor, but once they are satisfied, they forget, and their momentary enchantment disappears. None who eer longd for thy embrace, Hath cared to look upon thy face. All those who yearned for love, received it, but once having done so, neglected to see and look upon Eros. By using these beautiful words and... ... for lust, but he would rather take the effects of itbeing beaten and hurtthen cave in and support not love, but lust. Eros was made into a dilapidated, worn out god by the people who used him. He is the archetypes that you create, and thus shown to be an undesirable and unsightly god due to peoples demands for lust. In both poems, Eros is misunderstood and forgotten. The proper respects for the one who grants love, and thus happiness is not given. Through the different use s of diction and imagery, different tones were established in the two poems. In Bridges EP, Eros is shown to be the forgotten beauty, and in Stevensons Eros, Eros is portrayed as the broken, tired, and misunderstood god. Contrasting, yet similar, both poems depicted Eros, the god of love, as a neglected god, often finding himself in situations where improper respects were paid.

Symbolism and Allegory in Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown :: Young Goodman Brown YGB

symbolization and Allegory in Hawthornes Young Goodman Br birthSymbolism, something that figuratively represents something else, is outstanding in many literary works. unrivaled piece of literature that stands out as a perfect example of symbolism is Nathaniel Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown. This story is all told symbolic, and provides a good example of an allegory, or a story in which concrete items or timbres represent abstract ideas. Hawthorne uses both objects and battalion as symbols to better support the allegorical tones throughout Young Goodman Brown. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses different people as symbols throughout Young Goodman Brown. The largest symbolic roles in the story ar goodman Brown and his wife Faith. Both of the characters epithets are symbolic and vocalization of their personalities. With Heaven above and Faith below, I will stand riotous against the devil cried goodman Brown, is just one of many quotes that directly relates goodman Browns personality wi th his be (189). Goodman Brown is truly a good man. Faith, goodman Browns wife, also has a name that is indicative of her nature. The story directly supports this point in the phrase Faith, as the wife was aptly named . . . (184). Faith is persistent in trying to agree goodman Brown off the path of sin in the first go of the story . . . pry thee, put off your journey until sunrise, and sleep in your own bed to-night (184). Hawthorne does an excellent job of turning the main characters into symbols that are prominent throughout the story. Nathaniel Hawthorne also uses different objects in the story as symbols. One of these is the staff of the devil But the only thing about him, that could be fixed upon as remarkable, was his staff, which bore the likeness of a great disconsolate snake . . . (185). This symbol shows the reader the evil that is snarly with the devil character because the serpent is an archetype of the devil, or some sort of evil, which is prominent in many dif ferent cultures. Another object Hawthorne uses as a fall out symbol is the bump ribbon. The pink ribbon symbolizes the purity and innocence involved with Faith. And Faith . . . thrust her own pretty had into the street, letting the wind exercise with the pink ribbons in her cap, is a great example of how Hawthorne correlates Faith with the pink ribbons of innocence (184).

Monday, March 25, 2019

Terrorism Essay -- essays research papers

TerrorismJUNE 1914 a young man in Sarajevo steps up to a carriage and fires his pistol.The Archduke Ferdinand dies. Within weeks, the first world warfare has begun. The1940s the French resistance kill occupying troops when and how they understructure. June1944 at Oradour-sur-Glane, in central France, German SS troops take revenge,massacring 642 villagers. August 1945 the United States striving Force drops theworlds first nuclear weapons. Some 190,000 Japanese die, nearly all of themcivilians. Within days the second world war has ended.Which of these four events was an go of terrorism? Which achieved anything?Which, if any, will floor judge as justified? And whose history? Terrorism isnot the simple, sharp-edged, bad-guy phenomenon we all love to condemn. No clear describe marks off politics from the threat of force, threat from use, use from back or open war. Who is or is not a terrorist? The suicide bomber, the graybackguerrilla, the liberation front, the armed forces of the state?Terrorism is fundamentally a governmental act. Terrorists act to advance a causethey mean to create tyranny, each directly or indirectly, so that thepolitical order that they prefer can take the place of the current one.Terrorists can be either rebels pursuance to overthrow a state or states seekingto overthrow the world-wide order or states seeking to maintain privilege forrulers and stifle expostulation among the people. In every case the motivation forterrorism is explicitly without an exceptio...

Brave New World - Is Individuality a Threat to Society, or a Gift to So

As man has progressed with the ages, there has been, essentially, one purpose. That purpose is to arrive at a utopian society, where everyone is happy, disease is nonexistent, and strife, anger, or sadness is unheard of. Only happiness exists. entirely when confronted with Aldous Huxleys wear new World, we come to realize that this is not, in fact, what the human brain really craves. In fact, Utopian societies are much worse than those of today. In a utopian society, the individual, who among others composes the society, is lost in the melting pot of conjuring trick and world of uninterest. The theme of Huxleys Brave new(a) World is community, identity, and stableness. Each of these threesome themes represents what a Brave impudently World society needs to deport in order to survive. According to the new world controllers, community is a result of identity and stability, identity is a part of genetic engineering, and stability is what everyone desires to achieve. Thes e themes are represented in the book by the symbolic center of the phrase Children are from bottles and the hypnotic phrase Everybody belongs to everybody else. For a better understanding it is useful to explore these themes in detail. Community refers to the thought of one alone unit. Everyone is connected, by their actions toward each other in every day life, versed desires, and what they do to remove the feeling of horrible emotions. This connectedness and lie, and its effects faecal matter be seen in the character of Bernard, a person who hates what society has become.The stratum is A.F. 632 (After Ford Ford is the equivalent to God in Brave New World and with the available technology, citizens are mass produced. But have an fundamental theme in common. The stability of this brave new w... It is this willingness of man to bedevil the same mistake twice that in 2000 the ideas in Brave New World do not seem that far off base. well-nigh people thought that with the collapse of the Soviet Union it would put an exterminate to the suffering and an all-controlling government. But with an influx of clones, test tube babies, government controls of television, free violence, and the search for the perfect mood altering drug. Who is to say that Brave New World is not earth in fifty years? As more people lose their individuality they become connected with community. It is with this liaison that they begin to let others control their lives and humanity is already headed in that direction. Brave New World should not only be seen as a great piece of science fiction. It should be seen as a warning. Of what tail happen when people live up to the influence of outside sources.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Graduation Speech: What is Education? :: Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

My goal tonight is to motivate you and to encourage others to acquire their diploma. Ill start with a quote pedagogy is what you chip in left over after you have forgotten everything you have learned. Let me repeat that. Education is what you have left over after you have forgotten everything you have learned. I think that quote applies to me because I had to forget what I was taught evolution up. And, what I was left with is my diploma and education, just more so, wisdom. Im up present tonight because some people in this community opened up their ears, hearts, and homes to me. I was struggling when I first came to County highschool. I had failed seventh grade, really I passed with Fs but my mom held me back. I was a very deject and suicidal kid back then. I spent a raft of time in other peoples homes who could provide me with comfort and guidance. County Highs staff was long-suffering with me. Susan M. was my middle instruct teacher at and she recently reminded me of ho w I utilize to sit in corners or under desks to do my school practice or study. But soon I came out from the shadows and with some positivistic support, I went on to Lake County High School with As and Bs. I went to another school but I didnt make it there. When you lose your wind, you argon ready to come about up. You think that there is no point in trying. You dont believe you slew do it. But County High is home to me. Bob and Jane are my parents and the students are my brother and sisters. Over the years that I have been at County High my self-esteem has risen. My determination has become stronger and my future has become much brighter. at one time I didnt just come to County High a wreck and move on a happy little flower. Its been a process with many stepping stones from feel for people in this community. I remember my friends brother offering to deport for a school sport if I wanted to join. I didnt, but just that offer opened a door. I didnt know I could do that, I th ought it was for other kids. Not for people standardised me. I wasnt aware of many things in my teenage years because I hadnt experienced them with my family.

Symbolism in The Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck Essay -- Papers Chry

Symbolism in The Chrysanthemums by John SteinbeckAt first glance John Steinbecks The Chrysanthemums seems to be a story of a woman whose niche is in the garden. Upon deeper inspection, the story reveals strong symbolisms of children, vulnerability, and connection--being the most important, of the primary(prenominal) character. Elisa Allen is the main character who is at her strongest and most proud in the garden and weakened when she becomes vulnerable and loses her connection to the outer world. Elisa shows a new aura of confidence when she makes this connection to a peddler, who also is the micturate of her realization of reality and her crying.The chrysanthemums symbolize Elisas children. She tends her garden and handles the chrysanthemums with love and care, just as she would handle her own children. Elisa is protective of her flowers and places a fence near them she makes sure that no aphids, no sowbugs or snails or cutworms are there. Her terrier fingers destroyed such pests before they could get started (221). These pests represent something that ...

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Computer Network Security Alternatives :: Computer Network Security Essays

estimator Ne cardinalrk Security Alternatives Computer network security system and integrity is a large concern among every(prenominal) types and sizes of companies. The options for solving security risks are as varied as the companies themselves. However, it is come-at-able to break down the methods for dealing with security risks into three major categories. Companies need the option to1. Select best of breed products for their various security of necessity and assemble the products to hitchher to form their own customized solutions.2. Purchase a security entourage that contains security products that go forth address their various security needs. 3. source security to another company rather than handle it internally. This paper will summarize primary research conducted by Kang-hun Lee, Yonghoon Choi, Mike L overidge, Tom Gonzales and David Linford over a three month period to determine market trends in the security software industry. A survey instrument w as prepared to acquire the following entropy. 1. What do companies consider threats to their network environment?2. What taste sensations do they energize regarding specific security services?3. What sort of security option do they prefer when choosing between best of breed, suites or outsourcing. determinations and abbreviation Once the data were collected, we were able to organize and analyze the results. This section will both bound the analytical procedures we used as well as report on the findings. There are three (will be more when other sections get put in) primary types of analysis that we performed. 1. Find the security software preference2. Segment the market based on preferred security options Finding the security software preference We analyzed the preference data from two perspectives. First of all, we took the data as a whole in stage to describe the overall market. Overall MarketThe first type of analysis that we performed consi sted of finding the percentage of respondents that preferred each of the three security options. The results of this analysis are summarized on chart 1. We found at this point that most(prenominal) of the people who took the survey overwhelmingly preferred a security suite approach. Most of those who preferred best of breed indicated that if a suite could set aside a best of breed package, then they would prefer a suite.

Fear :: essays research papers

tending ? Recently, quakes flip hit many places like, Kobe, Greece, Turkey and Taiwan. Moreover, some scientists predict that a huge earthquake go awaying hit the Tokai area and it will have enough power to destroy the Tokyo area. I fear earthquakes for 3 reasons anticipation of disaster, being on the point of death in the rubble, and decent injured or sick. First, when any size earthquake hits, even a small one, I feel fear because my mind says, ?gSomeday there will be huge earthquake?h. Actually, a huge earthquake has non come yet, nevertheless psychologically I feel fear. For example, a a few(prenominal) days ago an earthquake hit Tokyo. It was small but my boldness beat so quickly during and after the earthquake that I could not do anything because I was so scared.When a huge earthquake such as the Kobe earthquake occurs, many buildings and houses will be destroyed. At that time, I give full scope to my imagination that I will be buried under rubble. Actually, being b uried under rubble is to the highest degree frightening to me because I could become weaker and weaker and finally die. I am panicked not only of being buried under rubble but also of being surrounded by flak or bad gas. Being surrounded by fire or poisonous gas, I could feel heat or breathe with difficulty and could know I am going to die. If an airplane crashes or a bomb explodes to the highest degree people will die instantly, so people usually do not feel pain or fear. However if I am buried under rubble or surrounded by fire and poisonous gas I will feel pain or have difficulty in breathing and I will not die quickly. So it is an agonizing death filled with fear. After the earthquake happens, many conundrums will occur for example, there will be a problem of supply with goods or temporary dwellings. However, the most frightening problem is disease. After an earthquake, there are sanitary problems. If some diseases spread among the people, it will be difficult to cure the d iseases because there will be most no medical supplies and almost no food.